印度人是否痛恨英国人两百年的殖民统治?

10-08 175 20215 凌波飞雁
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Is there any hate in Indians towards the British for their 200year occupation of India?

印度人是否痛恨英国人两百年的殖民统治?



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1.    Viral Bafna, Articled assistant(协议助理)Answered May 31
I'd like to answer this question but first let meintroduce to Dr Shashi Tharoor, a former Indian government minister and Memberof Parliament, made the case in a debate entitled 'This house believes Britainowes reparations to her former colonies', which was put on by the world-famousdebating society, the Oxford Union.

我很想去回答这个问题,但是,在此之前,请允许我介绍一下塔鲁尔博士,他是前印度政府部长和国会议员,他曾经参加过一场辩论,这个辩论的题目是“这间房子相信英国应该给予前殖民地赔偿”,这场辩论活动是由世界著名辩论协会“牛津学联”所主办的。
                              
The main thrust of Dr Tharoor's speech was about theeconomic toll that British rule took on India.He said: "India's share ofthe world economy when Britain arrived on it shores was 23 per cent. By thetime the British left it was down to below four per cent. Why? Simply becauseIndia had been governed for the benefit of Britain. Britain's rise for 200years was financed by its depredations in India."

塔鲁尔博士主要针对的就是英国对于印度的经济剥削问题。他说道“当英国人到达印度的时候,印度的经济占世界的比例是23%,但是,当英国人从印度离开的时候,印度经济占世界的份额已经低于百分之四了。为什么会这样呢?很简单,因为印度被英国所统治,成为了英国的奶瓶。英国人200年的崛起是以对印度的经济压榨为基础而实现的。”

Dr Shashi Tharoor MP - Britain Does Owe Reparations.Headded by saying "In fact, Britain's industrial revolution was actuallypremised upon the de-industrialisation of India."Dr Tharoor, and the restof the speakers at the debate, were not arguing about a specific amount thatshould be handed over in monetary reparations, but instead asking whether thereis a debt, and whether Britain does owe reparations or not.

塔鲁尔博士认为英国应该给予印度赔款。他补充说:“事实上,英国的工业革命是以印度的去工业化为前提的”。在此次辩论中,其他的发言者没有就英国所应该支付的数额进行讨论,而把重点放在了是否存在负债关系,英国是否应该赔款上面。

Concluding his speech, he said: "As far as I'mconcerned, the ability to acknowledge a wrong that has been done, to simply saysorry, will go a far, far, far longer way than some percentage of GDP in theform of aid." "What it required is accepting the principle thatreparations are owed. Personally, I'd be quite happy if it was one pound a yearfor the next two hundred years."

总结一下他的发言,他说:“正如我所关心的那样,承认自己犯下的错误,并且进行道歉,这些东西要比金钱援助要有价值的多.现在所需要被讨论的是赔款的原则,如果接下来的200年,英国每年赔偿1英镑,那么我将是会很开心的”。

His impassioned and articulate speech, which wasreceived well at the Oxford Union, has struck a chord amongst Indians. The15-minute video of his speech has been shared thousands of times, and isalready the fifth most popular video on the Union's YouTube channel despiteonly being a month old.

他的演讲慷慨激昂,在牛津辩论社里面得到了积极的反响,同时,他的演讲也引起了印度人的共鸣。他的十五分钟的演讲已经被分享几千次了。这个视频被放到了牛津辩论社的YouTube的视频频道里面了,尽管这个视频只是上传才一个月,但是已经成为了第五受欢迎的视频了。

It was a spiritied debate over a controversial issue,but in the end Dr Tharoor's side, which also included Jamaican High ComissionerNdombet Assamba and Ghanaian economist Dr George Ayittey, won the debate with185 votes to 56.

这是一个关于争议问题的一个深入的辩论,最终塔鲁尔博士的一方,包括以牙买加高级经济学家Ndombet Assamba和加纳经济学家George Ayittey博士,以185:56赢得了比赛。

2.    Shreyas Banthalpad, worked at Bharat Electronics Limited(就职于巴拉特电子有限公司)Answered Jul 13, 2014
Hate? No, not really. Very disappointed that some oftheir officers were not better "human beings" though. Yeah you readthat right. Some of them failed at something as basic as "beingHuman". Some of the things that they did while in India were just plaindespicable. No idea how they slept at night! Especially those who were involvedin Jallianwala Bagh massacre and similar events.

“恨”?不,没有恨,这非常令人失望,我不得不说他们的很多官员开起来很奇怪,你可以认为他们不是正常的人类。没错,我写的东西你没看错,在“如何做一个人”这件事情上面,他们有很多人是很不成功的。这些人在印度所干的很多事情都是很卑鄙的。不知道这些人在晚上是怎么睡得着的。那些卷入了贾良瓦那花园大屠杀和其它类似事件的人尤其可恶。(译者注:1919年4月13日,成千上万的人聚集,要求释放两位被拘留的领导人,Satyapal先生和Saifuddin先生。朝圣者从旁遮普省的各个角落来到这座城市。英国雷金纳德•戴尔准将带来五十名廓尔喀族火枪手,然后雷金纳德•戴尔准将命令军队向人群开火十分钟,指导他们的强手对准试图跑向大门的公众人群。 英国政府公布的数字是370人死亡,1200人受伤。 其他来源的死亡人数已超过1000人。“......在对阿姆利则惨案调查时,戴尔将军说,他唯一的遗憾是,他没有杀死更多的人。他还用装甲车挡住了出入口并还用机枪向人群扫射。之后,英国人强迫人们在街道上爬行通过一个英国军官脚下。)

And of course how they handled the Bengal famine of1943. Apparently Churchill said that the famine was in fact the fault of thelocals "for breeding like rabbits". To put things in perspective,anywhere between 1.5 million to 4 million people died due to that famine.

他们是如何处理1943年的孟加拉的移民的。丘吉尔说:“饥荒问题应该怪当地人自己,谁让他们像兔子一样繁殖?”当时饥荒大概饿死人的数目是150万至400万。

A lot of people talk about the wealth that was takenout of India. You know what? I don't really care about the money. We can earnit all back. In fact we are well on that path right now.
It is the human cost that bothers me. The fact thatthe entire west was completely silent to these crimes against humanity.

一些人谈论印度被掠夺的财富,你们懂什么?我根本不在乎那些钱,我们能再次挣回来,事实上我们现在正在这样做。在殖民统治中,人口损失才是我真正在意的。整个西方世界对于英国的反人类罪行都保持沉默。

So yeah, hate? Not really. After all, the currentgeneration British people weren't even involved. I doubt they even know of themagnitude of the crimes committed by their forebears. But I am verydisappointed. Not only with the British. But the entire western world. Thisconspiracy of silence must end. People must at least be educated abouteverything that happened. Exactly like it did. With no sugar coating.

所以,你说仇恨?不,毕竟,现在的英国人并没有卷入到当年的罪行当中去。我甚至怀疑他们根本不知道他们祖先所犯罪行的严重程度。针对这点我非常失望。不仅仅是英国人,整个西方世界都是如此。这种共同的对于犯罪的缄默态度应该要被终止了。人们至少应该要知道历史上究竟发生了什么。绝对的事实,不容抹杀。

3.    Nishit Patira, My personal opinion is my personal right. I will useit!Answered Jun 3
Originally Answered: Do Indians dislike British sinceBritain colonized India for almost three hundred years?
Pre 1947
There were different opinions about & towardsBritishers, depending on which of the following 3 groups you fall :-
Educated Indians - They were obviously very happyunder the British rule. They were the elite, well respected Indians. Thesepredominantly include lawyers, higher powers of the administration, police etc.

这个事情要分阶段来进行考察,如下我进行论述:
1947年前:
针对英国人有不同的看法,这个看法很大程度上依赖于你是以下阶层中的人中的哪一种:
第一种 —— 受过教育的印度人:他们很乐意处在英国人的统治之下,他们是精英,是受人尊重的印度人。这些人主要包括律师,政府高级官员,警察等等。

Working Section - Although the concept of Middle classis pretty new, logically, the working section of 1947 fall into that category.They include the clerks, peons, mid level managers of mills etc. They were inthe “Don’t care” section. They were to an extent “The Lost Section”. They werehidden from view, lived a non eventful life and were not too good or too sadunder the British Raj

第二种 —— 受雇佣的人 :尽管所谓的中产阶级是一个很新的一个词汇,1947年的那些受雇佣的人口也是应该算入这个行列的。他们包括办事员,劳工,工厂中层管理人员。他们一般处在视线之外,他们过着不那么引人注目的生活,既不太好,也不太坏。

The Oppressed : The people who were oppressed byBritishers. These include budding entrepreneurs, farmers, industrialists wholost due to the unfair practices of Britishers, certain folks from the EducatedIndians section (who were marginalized or had a change of heart). It waslargely this group that initiated & fought for independence.

第三种——被压迫的阶级:这些人被英国人所压迫。这些人包括小企业主,农民,被不公平法律所压制的工厂主,以及一些受过英国教育的,但是却被边缘化了的一群人,当然也有可能是些读书人良心发现了。

1947 - 1970
This era constituted the people who witnessed India’sindependence. They had bitter sweet memories of independence which framed theiropinion about Britishers.
Adversely Effected by Partition : Majority of Indiansdidn’t realize why was India being partitioned. They thought of this as a lastmove by Britishers to “Divide & Rule”. They look at Britishers withcontempt and hold them accountable for some of the issues that we have with ourneighbors.

1947年——1970年
这个时期的人经历了印度的独立,这些人对于印度独立的记忆中有悲伤也有甜蜜,这些经历塑造了他们对于印度的认知。
大印度分治的影响:
印度人不理解,为何要把印度和巴基斯坦分开,他们把印巴分离当成是英国人最后在次大陆留下的“分而治之”的战略!他们对英国很鄙视,他们认为英国制造了印度与邻国的各种矛盾。

Rest of the country : Most people in 1950, (except forthe emotional sentiment), wouldn’t find any difference in their life from whatit was in 1945. The lawyers, royalty etc. still enjoyed similar stature in theIndian society. Farmers were still facing droughts and there was noinfrastructure or Govt. resource to come to their aid. Mills and smallindustries still had no chance of competing with foreign goods.
So to a large extent, the lives of people wereunchanged in the first few years of partition. And sadly, a lot of people whoparticipated in the freedom struggle did not live long enough to witness thefruits of their struggle.

剩下部分的人:
除了情绪上的差异,大多数人在1950年的时候并没有发现他们的生活与1945年的时候有什么不同。比如律师和王公贵族这些人,等等。农民依然面临干旱,没有基础设施,也没有政府愿意搭理他们。小工厂主也还是没有机会与国外的商品进行竞争。所以,总体上来看,在独立后的前几年,印度人的生活并没有太大的变化。可惜的是,那些为了独立而斗争的人,他们很多人寿命太短,没有活到能够见到印度独立的那一天。

Post 1970
This era included people who were either too young in1947 or were born after that. These people had a chance to see the developmentof India as envisioned by Indians. Indian politicians, Indian civil servants,Indian engineers (with collaboration from Russia/Israel/France/Germany). Apartfrom textbooks and GrandMa’s stories, these people did not have any first handexperience of British Rule (The good or the bad). So, their views are prettyfluid. 

1970年以后:
印度独立的时候,有很多人年龄太小,或者是还没出生,1970年代的人主要是这样的一群人。这些人见证了印度独立以后的印度的各种发展。这些人中有政治家,公务员,工程师,他们得到了俄国,以色列,德国,法国的帮助。除了从课本或者是从长辈那里讲的故事,他们没有关于英国殖民统治的直观经历。所以,这些人对于英国人的看法是比较多元化的。

For most part they look at Britain for what it istoday (inventors of Cricket, responsible for bringing tea to India and a largeIndian diaspora). But every once in a while, their nationalistic fire burns upand they participate in the struggle to free Kohinoor and other artifacts“stolen” by British. In short, they treat Britain in the same way they treatevery other country - as long as the country is good to India, we would be goodto them.

他们看到的英国就是今日我们看到的英国——板球的发明者,将茶叶带到了印度,这对印度来讲也是一个“大分流”。但是,每隔一段时间,他们都会燃烧起民族主义的怒火,他们想把英国人从印度偷走的“科依诺尔钻石”和其它的宝贝要回来。大多数时候,他们对待英国人和对待其他人没有什么区别——只要他们对我们好,那么我们也会对他好。

4.    Sagnik Guha, B.A. Political Science (2018)Answered Jun 3
Originally Answered: Do Indians dislike British sinceBritain colonized India for almost three hundred years?
If by ‘British’ you mean, the current generation ofBritish, then no.Firstly, formal colonization was around 190 years (1757–1947)and not 300 years. Most Indians are acutely aware that the current generationof British are not responsible for the actions of their forefathers. There is ageneral stereotype of the British being snooty, stuck-up and withdrawn amongsome people, but I wouldn’t say its a dislike as such.

如果你说的是现代的英国人的话,那么我要说“并非如此”。首先,正式的殖民是190年,而不是300年。大多数印度人认为现在的英国新一代对于他们祖辈的行为并不负有责任。很多人认为英国人傲慢,自大,孤僻,但我要说,其实这些行为也没有那么讨厌。

India and the UK are strong partners. My father workedfor over a decade at the British Council and they’ve organized a lot ofcultural exchanges between our two countries involving schools, theater, musicand so on. British influences are everywhere in India from our governmentsystem, to our legal system, our education system, our speech and writing andso on.

印度和英国是很强有力的伙伴。我的父亲为英国文化协会工作,他们组织了很多的文化交流活动,包括教育,影视剧,音乐等等。英国对于印度的影响无处不在,包括我们的行政体系,我们的法律体系,我们的教育制度,我们的语言和书写系统等等。

That said, as an Indian, I am slightly disappointedthat off late, Britain has been reducing its efforts to welcome Indian studentsat the undergrad and graduate level by denying chances for working andpost-graduation employment. London is easily one of the most popular foreignhigher education destinations for the well-off Indian youth, and this sends arather discouraging message to them.

作为一个印度人,我对英国还是有点失望的。英国现在减少了对于印度的留学生的就业方面的优惠,这是在向印度留学生发出一个信号——他们是不受欢迎的。伦敦是印度人留学热门地点之一,现在英国的做法是在向印度发出一个信号,这个信号显示他们并不欢迎印度人。

5.    Ishan Gupta, works at LinkedInAnswered Jul 1, 2014
Well I think, what Britain achieved in 200 years,occupying nearly quarter of the world is a big thing. Though it involved a lotof bloodshed, wars and cost lives for millions of people... What happenedbeyond all that was wonderful: Transaction of ideas, united feeling, freedomstruggles, awareness of self in a global scenario and trade. Had people notbeen so oppressed, I don't think they would value democracy and freedom as muchas they do now, we consider everyone equal today, this would not have beenpossible without that gore period. 

200年前,英国人占领了世界上大约四分之一的领土,这实在是一件大事。尽管这涉及到一些杀戮,战争,数百万人生命的损失……但是,其结果也是非常精彩的:思想的交流,统一的感觉,自我存在感的增强,以及最后建立成了一个全球性的网络。如果人民没有被压迫过,我不认为他们会像今天一样那么珍惜民主和自由,今天我们认为人人平等,但是如果没有殖民主义的话, 我不认为他会成为今天的主流价值。

As a practical person I believe what Britain did atthat time, was right from their perspective, which nation didn't wanna expandor have their share of resources that time. Its admirable how a tiny islandachieved all that through discipline and dedication. 

作为一个现实主义的一个人,我认为英国人在那个时代做了符合他们自己利益的事情,在那个时代,哪个国家不想扩张他们的领土,占据更多的市场份额?一个小小的岛国居然能做到这种地步,实在是让人惊叹,这需要极大的纪律和自我牺牲的精神。

So rather than hating, all nations and people shouldlearn, that if we get together, work together and be disciplined anddedicated.. we can win over anything, and there is no need to tramp over othersto do that. I don't feel anyone feels hatred towards British, on the otherhand, we learnt a lot from them, taught them so much and came to a betterunderstanding of each other.

所以,与其痛恨,不如认真思考。所有的国家和所有的人都应该学习,如果我们聚在一起,一起工作,很有纪律及很有牺牲奉献的精神…我们能做到任何事情,不需要踩着别人去实现自己的目标。我没觉得任何人痛恨英国,从另外一个方面来说,我们从英国学到了很多的东西,他们教会了我们很多东西,我们彼此之间有了更多的了解。

6.    Apoorva Banerjee, A proud and free IndianUpdated Aug 4
No. Not towards the present generation at least.TheBritish Empire in India ended in 1947, which was 70 years ago. Since then,three generations of Indians & Brits have been born and passed.What WinstonChurchill did to my people in 1943, or what General Reginald Dyer did inJallianwala Bagh in 1919, is not to be blamed to today's Britons, just like howtoday's Germans shouldn't be blamed for the Nazi Holocaust.

印度人并不恨英国人,至少现在的时代的人不恨英国人。印度的英国殖民主义在1947年就终结了,这已经是七十年前的事情了。丘吉尔在1943年做的事情和雷金纳德·戴尔在1919年做的事情不应该怪罪今日的英国人,就如同今天的德国人不应该为二战时候的纳粹种族屠杀负责一样。

What does annoy me as an Indian, is just a few things.Things like how British textbooks teach distorted history to their children.How the myth of the “benevolent” British Empire is flaunted, whereas thereality was violence, racism, famine and ethnic cleansing. Be it the Indians,or the African slave trade, or the ethnic cleansing of Australian aborginies,the riches and jewels the Brits see in the royal palace or Tower of London isill-gotten wealth through centuries of enslavement, loot and depredations.

作为一个印度人,关心的是其它的一些事情。比如英国的教科书是如何向他们的孩子扭曲他们的历史的,大英帝国是如何“仁慈”的,事实上,大英帝国充斥着暴力,种族主义和种族清洗。不管是对印第安人,还是非洲的奴隶,或者是对澳大利亚土著人的种族灭绝,英国王家宫殿和伦敦塔上面的财富和珠宝是经过几个世纪的奴役,抢劫而掠夺来的。

I lived in Germany for two months, and all Germanshave accepted their past responsibility of the Holocaust, and hence are veryprotective towards their Jews and other minorities. However, Britain seems tostill deny it's past.Everything that former Britain did in India, was for thebenefit of empire. Those who say that it was for the benefit of the locals areliving in a fool's paradise.

我在德国住了两个月了,所有德国人都承认他们的大屠杀罪行,所以,他们非常注意保护犹太人和少数民族。相反,英国人看起来依然对他们的过去依然采取抵赖,拒不承认的态度。英国在印度所做的一切,都是为了大英帝国,那些说大英帝国的统治是为了造福当地人的说法都是一些活在梦里的傻瓜。

If Britain acknowledges the fact that the colonies,particularly India had to suffer a lot as a result of the depredations of theEmpire, it would mean a lot. We don't want monetary reparations, a simple sorrywould suffice, because today's Brits are not responsible for the crimes of theformer British Empire.In a nutshell, hating Brits won't bring back the Indianswho died for securing our freedom. That is a reality.

如果英国承认了基本的现实,承认他们的殖民对于印度人民带来了深切的灾难,这样做的意义是很重大的。我们并不是想要赔款,一个简单的道歉就足够了,因为今日的英国人并不需要为当年的帝国时代的罪行负有直接责任。憎恨英国人并不会让那些为了印度自由而被杀害的人死而复生。这是一个基本事实。

In fact, I regret that our two people had to know eachother as enemies in the past. But the thing is, that we make peace with ourenemies, not our friends. Today, India and England are good friends, greatpartners. We're walking into the future together, with numerous trade deals,business partnership, people to people ties and much more.

事实上,我们两个国家的人民作为敌人而相识,这一点实在是让人遗憾。我们与我们的敌人之间建立了和平。今天,英国和印度是好朋友,伟大的伙伴。我们一起走入新时代,我们之间有大量的贸易,商业关系,人民之间的联系越来越紧密。

It would be great if both of us could properly come toterms with our past. India loves the British, but do not be mistaken, for Indiahasn't forgotten it's past. However, India wouldn't fixate on the pasteither.We have come to terms with our past. It's high time that the Brits cometo terms with theirs.

如果我们双方都能够妥善的看待我们的过去,那将是一件极其美好的事情。印度人爱英国人,但是不要搞错了,印度人并没有忘掉过去。但是,印度人也不会沉溺在过去而无法自拔。印度人已经接受了印度人的过去,现在,是英国人与他们自己的历史达成一致的时候了。

 
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