为什么中国的首都是北京而不是西安或者洛阳?

05-15 194 27285 雨天不打伞
正文翻译
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题目:

Why is Beijing the capital of China and not Xi'anor Luoyang?

为什么中国的首都是北京而不是西安或者洛阳?



提问:

Ren0312
Why is Beijing the capital ofChina, and not Xi'an, Luoyang, or even Kaifeng? I mean Beijing is a prettyrecent capital of the Ming, while Xi'an was the capital all the way back to theQin, and had more historicity as the capital under the great dynasties of theHand and the Tang, while Luoyang was the capital under the Han and Tangdyansties, and Kaifeng was the capital during the Northern Sung.

为什么中国的首都是北京,而不是西安或者洛阳,甚至是开封?我认为北京很棒,而且是明朝的都城,但西安作为都城的历史可以追溯到秦朝,而且很多历史上伟大的朝代都定都西安,例如汉朝和唐朝;洛阳在汉朝和唐朝时期也曾是都城,开封在北宋时期也是当时的都城。
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Witson
All I know, that after Yuandynasty nominated it as capital it wasn't changed since. Maybe next dynasty dislikedit and it gone as it stayed.

据我所知,元代的皇帝把北京定为首都后,它就没有改变过。也许下一个朝代不喜欢它,会定都别的地方。

Vaderfan
Which is not true. During thereign of Hongwu and Jiangwen the capital was at Nanjing, it was moved back toBeijing by Yongle. After Xinhai Revolution the capital of Republic was again atNanjing, but PRC after capturing Beijing opted out to make it their capitalinstead.

并不是。洪武和江文年间,都城在南京,永乐皇帝将其迁回北京。辛亥革命后,民国的首都又回到了南京,但是新中国成立后又再次定都北京。

ltaaaTxt

Mariusj
The Emperor wishes tore-establish the capital in Luoyang, his officials wishes him to not do so. TheKing of Jin Guangyi said that act would be difficult for the empire, theemperor replied, not only move to Henan, but should end in Changan.' Guangyiasked why, and the emperor replied, I wish to move west, and use naturaldefenses so we can reduce the need for soldiers. Guangyi replied, it is invirtue and not in natural defenses. Thus ask the emperor to return to Bian, andthe Emperor felt without a choice, and return. But he did say, within a hundredyears, the people would be exhausted.

宋太祖希望在洛阳重建都城,但他的官员不希望他这样做。晋王赵光义说,这样做对帝国来说将是及其困难的。宋太祖回答说,不仅要迁往洛阳,而且最终要迁都长安。晋王问为什么,宋太祖回答说,我希望向西移动,利用天然屏障做防御,这样我们就可以减少对士兵的需求。晋王回答说,首位国家在于美德,而不是天然屏障。于是请皇上回汴京,皇上觉得没有选择,就回去了。但他确实说过,一百年之内,必会民生凋敝。

Bart Dale
Why did the Communistre-establish Beijing as the capital? I can understand why the 1911 Republicmoved the capital to Nanjing, they wanted a change from the previous imperialgovernment, and move the capital from Beijing because of its association withthe previous imperial government. Perhaps the Communist themselves wanted achange from what had been KMT's capital for the same reason. Also Beijing,unlike Nanjing, had not fallen to the Japanese in WW2, and that may have been afactor as well.
For the last 700 years, thecapital of China has usually been either Nanjing of Beijing, with Beijing beingthe capital during most of that time, so it was logical for the PRC to chooseit as the capital. The other historic capital of China were much further backin history, since late Medi times Beijing has been the primary capital ofChina.

中国为什么要把北京重新建成首都?我能理解为什么1911年的民国把首都迁到南京,他们想要改变以前的帝国政府,把首都从北京迁出,因为北京与以前的帝国政府有联系。也许北京本身也出于同样的原因想要改变国民党的首都。此外,与南京不同,北京在二战中没有落入日本之手,这可能也是一个因素。
在过去的700年里,中国的首都通常不是北京就是南京,而且大部分时间北京都是首都,所以中国选择北京作为首都是合乎逻辑的。中国的另一个历史上的首都要追溯到更早的历史时期,自中世纪晚期以来,北京一直是中国的主要首都。

Wigglywaffles
Beijing under the name Beipingwas occupied in late 1937

北京在1937年沦陷,当时叫“北平”

ltaaaTxt

Chornedsnorkack
Yes, and after Guomingdangrecovered control of Nanjing in September 1945, the capital returned to Nanjingin May 1946 despite having been in Chongqing for 8 years.
When Guomingdang was about tolose Nanjing in November 1937, why did the government flee to Chongqing, thathad not previously been capital, rather than Xian, that had?

是的,正如1945年9月,在国民党收复南京后,尽管已经在重庆8年了,但首都还是在1946年5月回归南京。
不过,1937年11月,当国民党即将失去南京时,为什么政府逃到了以前从来不是首都的重庆,而不是逃去西安?

Maki
Chongqing is protected bymountains and canyons and Chiang's previous provisional capital Wuhan hadalready fallen to the Japanese. He probably wanted to prevent anotherprovisional capital falling to the Japanese. Plus, I can't imagine Chiangreally liking Xi'an after the 1936 incident.

重庆被群山和峡谷所保护,蒋介石之前的临时首都武汉已经沦陷。他可能是想防止另一个临时首都落入日本手中。此外,我无法想象蒋介石在1936年“西安事变”还会后真的喜欢西安。

JBI
Jiang actually burned downChangsha upon retreat. Chongqing being restricted wouldn't have been the endanyway. Nuclear war saved his tail -- he likely would have been surrounded fromthe other side and the south had the Japanese campaigns in the North and inBurma succeeded.

蒋介石在撤退时烧毁了长沙。无论如何,重庆受到限制所以不会是最终的选择。美国的核弹救了他的命——如果日本在北方和缅甸的军事行动成功,他很可能已经被对方包围了。

ltaaaTxt

Huangpan
Time has passed. China’spolitical and economic center has already moved from the west to the CentralPlains and the Jiangnan region. Since the Tang Dynasty, China’s nationalpolitical power has not established a capital in the Guanzhong area of Shaanxi.The Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties set the capital in Beijing. The first year ofthe Republic of China was also Beijing. On the eve of the founding of thePeople's Republic of China, the domestic situation was completely liberated tothe north of the Yangtze River. The large area south of the Yangtze River wasjust liberated. Although the economic base of the Jiangnan area is very good,it has not been fully consolidated in politics. Therefore, it is impossible tolocate the capital in the south, and the largest in the north. The city isBeiping, plus the ancient capital, the basic conditions are very good. At thattime, Peiping was peacefully liberated and was not destroyed by the war. Itsnortheastern region was also rich in industrial base and liberated the earlier northeasternregion. Therefore, it is inevitable that Beijing will be settled. In fact, theCCP decided to set up Harbin in the first place, but the liberation war endedrelatively quickly. This decided to give up Harbin, Dingdu Beijing

时代不同了。中国的政治经济中心已经从西部转移到中原和江南地区。自唐代以来,中国的民族政权就没有在陕西关中地区建立过都城。元、明、清三代把首都设在北京。民国的第一年也是北京。在新中国成立前夕,长江以北完全得到解放,而长江以南的大片地区才刚刚解放。江南地区的经济基础虽然很好,但在政治上还没有得到充分的巩固。因此,把首都设在南方是不可能的。而且当时最大的城市在北方,这个城市是北平,加上是历史古都,基本条件都很好。当时,北平和平解放,没有遭到战争破坏。东北地区工业基础雄厚,而且相对更早获得解放。因此,定都北京是不可避免的。事实上,中国一开始决定定都哈尔滨,但解放战争结束得相对较快,于是决定放弃哈尔滨,转而定都北京
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