纽约时报长文:大众癫狂还是大麻天堂? 大麻合法化五年后的美国科罗拉多(无评论)
2019-07-08 天际长弓 24098
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ReeferMadness or Pot Paradise? The Surprising Legacy of the Place Where Legal WeedBegan

大众癫狂还是大麻天堂? 大麻合法化五年后的美国科罗拉多

Colorado'sfirst-in-the-nation experiment with legalized marijuana has infused the druginto almost every corner of life.


Workersprepared for marijuana planting on Woody Farms in Pueblo, Colo. The state'sfirst-in-the-nation experiment with legalizing recreational marijuana put it onthe front lines of changing America's drug laws.CreditCreditBenjamin Rasmussenfor The New York Times

工人们准备在科罗拉多州普韦布洛的伍迪农场种植大麻, 作为全国首个将娱乐性大麻合法化的试点,科罗拉多州已经成为改变美国毒品法律的前沿阵地。

作者: Jack Healy


And whilelow-level marijuana charges have plummeted, the racial divide in drug arrestshas persisted. State numbers show that African-Americans in Colorado were stillbeing arrested on marijuana charges at nearly twice the rate of white people.

虽然因为低纯度大麻而被指控的案件数量已经大幅下降,但是对吸食人员的抓捕依然存在种族分歧。 数据显示,在科罗拉多州,非裔美国人仍然会因为吸食大麻而被捕,这一比例几乎是白人的两倍。

"Youdon't see drug-addled people roaming the streets, but we haven't created autopia," said Jonathan Singer, who was one of just two state legislatorswho endorsed the Colorado ballot measure that made it legal for adults 21 andover to buy, consume and grow recreational marijuana.

"现在街上没有吸毒成瘾的人四处乱逛了,但我们并没有创造一个乌托邦",乔纳森 • 辛格说,他是仅有的两名投票支持科罗拉多州大麻合法化法案的州议员之一,该法案规定,21岁及以上的成年人购买、消费和种植娱乐性大麻都是合法的。

Mr.Singer nodded to his 3-year-old, who sat in the back seat one afternoon as theyheaded to a picnic. "The fact that I'm willing to have this conversationin front of my daughter," he said, "shows how much we'vedestigmatized this."


This is theworld reconfigured by legalization - the world that 18-year-old Ethan Piersongrew up in. He was born the same year that Colorado's first medical-marijuanalaw took effect. He watched dispensaries bloom along the commercial streetsleading to his high school in suburban Lakewood.

这是一个被大麻合法化重新定义的世界ーー18岁的伊桑•皮尔森就完全是在这个世界长大的。 他出生的同一年,科罗拉多州的第一个医用大麻法生效, 在莱克伍德郊区,他眼看着大麻商店在通往他高中的商业街上遍地开花。

"Ifyou live in Colorado, it feels like somebody's always smoking next toyou," said Mr. Pierson, who abstains.


"It'seasy to conceal," Mr. Pierson said. "They carry it around in theirpurse or pencil bag."

"而且很容易隐藏",皮尔森说, "他们把它放在钱包或者笔袋里随身携带。"

Someschool administrators say they are catching more students using marijuana andfewer drinking. School disciplinary numbers show that marijuana is a leadingreason students are punished or handed over to the police. But the overallnumber of students being expelled for drug infractions has actually fallensince legalization, in part because Colorado lawmakers sought to get rid of"zero tolerance" policies at schools around the same time pot waslegalized.

一些学校管理人员说,他们发现越来越多的学生不再仅仅满足于喝酒,而是开始吸食大麻, 学校的纪律处分数据显示,大麻是学生被处罚甚至送交给警察的主要原因。 但是,自从大麻合法化以来,因违反大麻规定而被开除的学生总数实际上有所下降,部分原因是科罗拉多州的立法者试图在大麻合法化的同时废除学校对大麻的"零容忍"政策。

In afourth-floor juvenile courtroom in Denver, where children stand in front of amagistrate on charges including curfew violations and fighting, the number ofmarijuana possession cases is thinning out. The share of teenagers arrested formarijuana offenses has fallen by about 20 percent since Colorado voted tolegalize, but black youths and adults are still getting arrested at much higherrates than white or Hispanic Coloradans, according to a state report. In 2017,black people in the state were arrested on marijuana charges at double the rateof white ones, according to the Colorado Division of Criminal Justice.

在丹佛一个四层楼的少年法庭里,孩子们站在地方法官面前,被指控违反宵禁或打架,而私自持有大麻的案件数量正在减少。 根据一份州报告显示,自从科罗拉多州投票通过大麻合法化以来,因大麻犯罪而被捕的青少年比例已经下降了约20% ,但是在科罗拉多,黑人青少年以及成年人被捕的比例仍然比白人或西班牙裔高得多。 根据科罗拉多州刑事司法部门的数据,2017年,该州的黑人因吸食大麻被捕的比例是白人的两倍。

MarijuanaArrests in Colorado Per 100,000 people of each group


Note:Juveniles are between 10 and 17 years old.Source: Colorado Bureau ofInvestigation

注:年龄在10至17岁之间为青少年组(蓝色线),成人组为灰色线。 四个方块依次为黑人、白人、西班牙裔及其他。来源: 科罗拉多调查局

Someparents said that marijuana was becoming too normal, another legallypermissible health risk with slick marketing, like alcohol or cigarettes. Butmarijuana shops cannot advertise on billboards. They are required to checkidentification at the door. They are supposed to be located at least 1,000 feetfrom schools. Edibles can no longer look like gummy bears or fruit or be called"candies."

一些家长表示,大麻变得过于正常,像酒或香烟一样,在巧妙的营销手段推广下,这将变成又一种法律允许的健康风险。 大麻商店不能在广告牌上做广告,在店门口有专人检查身份证件,必须设在离学校至少300米以外, 可食用大麻制品不能做成小熊软糖或水果的外观,也不能用"糖果"一类的名称来销售。

To someparents, this is not enough. They say their children smell marijuana on hikes,and count dispensaries on their rides home from school. Before play dates, BenCort now asks other parents whether they keep marijuana in the house before hisdaughter visits a new friend's home. Sujata Fretz, a physician in Denver, saidshe found herself having a conversation with her 13-year-old son aboutmarijuana that was shaped by the proliferation of the industry.

对一些家长来说,这些措施还远远不够。 他们说他们的孩子在徒步时闻到了大麻的味道,在放学回家的路上,他们有时会边走边数大麻商店的数量。 现在每当女儿去一个新朋友家玩之前,本 • 科特都会先打电话给对方父母,提醒他们不要把大麻放在家里。苏亚塔•弗雷茨是丹佛的一名内科医生,她说她不得不开始和13岁的儿子谈论大麻,这都表明该产业的扩散已经造成了多么大的影响。

"There'sa disconnect between what was proposed as a completely safe drug," Dr.Monte said. "Nothing is completely safe."


Andresearchers have reported that patients in the E.R. with marijuana-relatedcases were five times as likely to have a mental-health issue as those withother cases.


Image:Thestate has seen a proliferation of recreational pot shops.

图片: 该州已经出现了大量娱乐性大麻商店。

"It'snot wreaking havoc," she said. "There are people using responsibly inColorado."

"这不会对健康造成严重破坏",她说, "在科罗拉多州,人们愿意为使用大麻负责。"

StephanieAngell, 63, used to think she was one of them. Then she began smoking heavilyevery day, after she learned she had multiple sclerosis in 2014. She startedsmoking after waking up, and then gravitated to the thick, amberlikeextractions that offer higher concentrations of psychoactive THC. Dispensariesoffered specials, she said, like Edible Wednesdays.

63岁的斯蒂芬妮 • 安吉尔曾经也认为自己是他们中的一员, 2014年得知自己患有多发性硬化症后,她开始每天大量吸烟来抑制疼痛, 她每天起床后就开始吸烟,再后来就发展到开始使用浓稠琥珀状的四氢大麻酚提取物,那更带劲, 而且大麻商店提供特价,她说,就像每周三超市特价一样。

"Ibegan to smoke morning, noon and night," she said.


Comparedwith the 72,000 drug overdose deaths in America in 2017, with the crimes andloss spawned by the opioid crisis, marijuana addiction, users say, can seem tooinnocuous to even merit attention. State health data have not shown a surge ofpatients seeking addiction treatment.

吸食大麻的人说,2017年美国有72000人因吸毒过量而死亡,阿片类药物危机也带来了大量犯罪和损失,跟这些比起来,大麻成瘾似乎非常无害,甚至不值得关注。 国家健康数据也没有显示因大麻成瘾而寻求治疗的患者人数有多大变化。

But Ms.Angell said her habit had left her life dull, like a worn pencil. She lostinterest in cross-stitching and other hobbies and felt like she had to smokebefore going to the movies or to dinner.

但安吉尔女士说,她吸食大麻的习惯让她的生活变得像白开水一样枯燥乏味, 她对十字绣和其他业余爱好都失去了兴趣,去看电影或吃饭之前都必须要吸大麻,不然就浑身难受。

Ms.Angell still supports legalization. But she and other heavy users say the risksof marijuana dependence are real, and are being overlooked as medical andrecreational marijuana spread to 34 states. While legalization efforts failedthis year in states including New Jersey and New York, Illinois last weekbecame the 11th state to legalize recreational marijuana.

安吉尔女士仍然支持大麻合法化, 但是她会和其他大量吸食大麻的人说,大麻成瘾的风险是真实存在的,而且随着医用或娱乐用大麻合法化在34个州传播开来,这些风险被忽视了。 虽然今年包括新泽西州和纽约州在内的许多州对大麻合法化的努力失败了,但是上周伊利诺伊州成为了第11个娱乐性大麻合法化的州。

Lastmonth, police and federal drug-enforcement agents raided 240 homes aroundDenver and Northern Colorado that were illegally growing marijuana, the largestsweep since legalization. Jason Dunn, the United States attorney in Denver,said it was a sign Colorado had become "the epicenter of black-market marijuanain the United States."


Legalizationcoincided with a 20 percent rise in violent crime rates in Colorado from 2012to 2017, according to a state report, giving ammunition to critics. But it isalmost impossible to attribute broad changes in crime rates to just one cause.Over the same period, the number of marijuana-related arrests fell by half. TheDenver Police say that marijuana offenses - which make up less than 1 percentof overall crimes - fell by about 25 percent since recreational sales began in2014.

科罗拉多州的一份报告显示,2012年至2017年,科罗拉多州的暴力犯罪率上升了20%,这给了批评者反对合法化充足的理由。但是,不可能把犯罪率的巨大变化仅仅归因于一个原因。在同一时期,因吸食大麻而被捕的人数减少了一半。 丹佛警方表示,自2014年娱乐性大麻销售开始以来,大麻犯罪率下降了约25%,占总犯罪的不到1%。

RetailMarijuana Businesses, 2014 and Now


In 2014,marijuana businesses were concentrated in Colorado's big cities and aroundmajor roadways. Since then, they have proliferated in border towns and ruralareas as well.

2014年,大麻生意主要集中在科罗拉多州的大城市和主要道路周围。 大麻合法化以后,它们在边境城镇和农村地区的业务量也快速上涨。

Source:Colorado Department of Revenue


Still,tiny rural places and struggling cities that were left out of Colorado'sbooming economy have decided it is worth the gamble. So marijuana shops arecrowding into tiny towns near the Utah, Nebraska or New Mexico borders - aconcern for officials worried about out-of-state trafficking. Farmland and openspace are becoming huge cultivations and processing centers.


Gov.Jared Polis, a Democrat, campaigned on supporting marijuana. For his cannabisadviser, he picked not a law-enforcement type or public-health official, but aonetime owner of a Denver dispensary who had run a marijuana consultingbusiness.


But asthe industry expands, some of marijuana's earliest supporters and firstentrepreneurs have raised concerns about being left out as pot companies in theUnited States and Canada chase billion-dollar valuations and hire powerfulpoliticians like John Boehner, the Republican former House speaker. Asmarijuana starts to look like the next Silicon Valley, early advocates such asWanda James, the first African-American woman in Colorado to own a dispensary,now worry that small businesses, women, and people of color - who weredisproportionately hurt by harsh marijuana laws - are now getting left on thesidelines.

但是随着大麻产业的扩张,一些大麻的早期支持者和第一批相关企业家担心被美国和加拿大的大麻公司排除在外,因为这些公司有数十亿美元的估值,可以雇佣像共和党前众议院议长约翰 • 博纳这样强有力的政治家。随着大麻业开始看起来像下一个硅谷,像旺达 • 詹姆斯这样的早期投资者开始担心自己被抛在一边,她是科罗拉多州第一位拥有大麻商店的非裔美国女性,作为小企业主、妇女和有色人种,他们受到严厉的大麻法律更多的刁难。

WandaJames and Scott Durrah, who became the first African-Americans to obtain alicense to sell marijuana in America, at their dispensary, Simply Pure, inDenver.

旺达•詹姆斯和斯科特•杜拉成为第一个获得美国大麻销售许可证的非裔美国人,图上是他们在丹佛的大麻商店“Simply Pure”。

DavidPerez, 17, said he had gotten used to the smell that leaks out of marijuanabusinesses in his neighborhood. It was in the air one afternoon as he walked toa friend's graduation party.


"Everytime I go for a walk or go to the rec, I smell it. It's everywhere," hesaid. He didn't like it, but he was used to it. "It just feelsnormal."

"每次我出去散步或者去娱乐中心,我都能闻到它的气味, 到处都是",他说,他不喜欢这样,但他已经习惯了, "开始觉得正常。"