[ 美国childmind] 网瘾真实存在吗?
2019-08-01 bluebit 9304
原文地址
原文地址:https://childmind.org/article/is-internet-addiction-real/
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原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:bluebit 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-487916-1-1.html

Is Internet Addiction Real?

网瘾真实存在吗?

With kids spending more and more time onscreens, parents worry that they are getting hooked

孩子们在屏幕上耗费的时间越来越多,家长们担心成瘾



internet addiction. Phone addiction.Technology addiction. Whatever you call it, a lot of parents are expressingworries that their children are addicted to their devices.

网络成瘾、手机成瘾、科技成瘾。无论你如何称呼,大多家长均指的是担心他们的孩子沉迷于电子设备中。

Is the behavior that parents are concernedabout really addiction?

父母真的是对电子设备成瘾担心吗?



Are kids addicted?

是孩子们上瘾了吗?

While the comparison to substance abuse istempting, because devices are stimulating to the same reward centers of thebrain, experts point out crucial differences.

尽管与药物滥用进行比较很形象,但专家指出了两者之间的根本区别。

“Addiction doesn’t really capture the behavior we’re seeing,” saysDr. Matthew Cruger, a neuropsychologist and the director of the Learning andDevelopment Center at the Child Mind Insititute. “With addiction you have achemical that changes the way we respond, that leads us to be reliant on it forour level of functioning. That’s not what ‘s happening here. We don’t develophigher levels of tolerance. We don’t need more and more screen time in order tobe able to function.”

成瘾的行为并不能为我们所真正捕捉到,”神经心理学家、儿童心理研究所(Child Mind insite)学习与发展中心(Learning and Development Center)主任马修克鲁格博士表示。“成瘾会产生一种化学物质,它会改变我们的反应方式,导致我们依赖它来维持我们的功能水平。电子或屏幕成瘾不是这样的。我们没有发展出更高水平的耐受性。我们不需要[size=14.3999996185303px]更多的时间面对屏幕来满足。

There is, technically, no such thing asinternet or phone addiction. Some in the psychiatric community haveproposed a new disorder called internetgaming disorder, to recognize unhealthy patterns of game-playing. But to riseto the level of a disorder, Dr. Anderson notes, the behavior would would bevery extreme, and seriously impairing to a child’s life.

从技术上来讲,不存在网瘾或手机瘾之说。精神病学领域中的一些人提出了一种新的疾病概念,叫做网络游戏障碍,用来区分不健康的游戏方式。但安德森博士指出,如果这种行为上升到不可控的程度,就会变得非常极端,严重伤害孩子们的生活。

That would mean an amount of screen timethat’s not only more than parents feel comfortable with, but that crowds outother age-appropriate activities, like socializing, sports, school work — evenhygiene and sleep. “We would be looking at adolescents who are pushingeverything else out of their lives,” explains Dr. Anderson. “They are not having friendships, notengaging socially — at least offline — and they may be failing in school.”

该症状的出现说明,孩子们占有大量的屏幕时间不仅让父母感到不舒服,还会挤压适龄时期的活动时间,比如社交、运动、写作业,甚至包括卫生与睡眠。安德森博士解释说:“我们研究那些迷恋屏幕而脱离生活的青少年。”“他们没有朋友,没有社交能力,甚至脱离网络后,在学校表现也是很差。



The amount of time teenagers typicallyspend on phones and other devices can be misleading as a measure of whetherthey are unhealthily engaged. That’s because many of the things kids do onthose devices are age-appropriate activities that in the past have been doneoffline: socializing with peers, exploring personal interests, shopping,listening to music, doing schoolwork, watching movies or TV.

青少年通常花在手机或在其他(游戏)设备上的时间,来作为衡量他们是否不健康的指标,或许具有误导性。这是因为孩子们在这些设备上做的事情大多为此时的适龄活动,而这些活动在过去都是在真实世界中进行的,例如与同龄人交往、兴趣探索、购物、听音乐、做作业、看电影或电视。

Texting and use of social media sites, forinstance, have become important channels for adolescents connecting to othersand being validated. Role-playing games allow kids to interact not only withfriends, but to people around the world. A 2016 report by Common Sense Mediaconcluded: “What looks like excessive use and distraction is actually areflection of new ways of maintaining peer relations and engaging incommunities that are relevant to them.”

短信与社交网站的使用,已经成为青少年与他人联系或被认可的重要渠道。角色扮演游戏不仅能让孩子们与朋友产生互动,还能接触到世界各地的人们。常识媒体(Common Sense Media)在2016年的一份报告中总结道:“看似过度沉迷和注意力分散的行为,实际上是在维持同伴关系、参与聚会的新种方式

Is it masking a mental health disorder?

网瘾是否被错误的理解成是一种精神紊乱?

When a child seems unhealthily focused onvideo games, to the point of social isolation, the behavior may be, rather thanaddiction, a product of other mental health problems.

当孩子看似沉迷电子游戏,以至孤立于社会时,该行为可能是其他心理健康问题,而不是上瘾。

Dr. Anderson reports that he finds himselfsaying to parents, “We understand your hypothesis that your kid is addicted togames, but it may be that he is socially anxious. It may be that he isdepressed. It may be that he has a learning disorder.”

安德森博士报告中对父母们说道,“我们理解你们的假设,但孩子沉迷于游戏,可能是因为他有社交恐惧。她可能沮丧。还可能有学习障碍。“



Problematic use

使用问题

While experts say that parents shouldremain skeptical of the notion of addiction, they also argue that parentsshould be alx for potential negative fallout from screen use. Apps and gamesare designed to keep us engaged as much as possible, and it can be hard forchildren to exercise self-control when their impulse is to keep scrolling.

尽管专家们表示,家长们应该慎重来看待上瘾概念,但专家们也认为,家长们应该警惕长时间面对屏幕所可能带来的负面影响。应用程序和游戏的设计目的是让我们尽可能地沉浸其中,当孩子们面对极具诱惑的屏幕时,可能很难把控自己。

There is ample evidence that intense socialmedia use is correlated with anincrease in anxiety and depression as teenagers,especially girls, compare themselves unfavorably to their peers and worry aboutmissing out.

有充分的证据表明,过度使用社交软件与青少年(尤其是女孩)焦虑和抑郁增加有关,因为她们常与自己同龄人进行比较怕处于劣势,担心错过机会。

Research shows that excessive gaming —spending two-thirds or more of free time — is correlated with negative mentalhealth outcomes, including higher incidence of anxiety, depression andsubstance use.

研究表明,过度的游戏——花费三分之二或更多的空闲时间——与消极的心理健康,包括高度的焦虑、抑郁和频繁使用药物有关。

There is evidence that multitasking — usingsocial media, texting, watching tv while doing homework — undermines cognitivefunctioning and decreases learning.

有证据表明,同时专注多种活动,例如做作业时的同时使用社交软件、发短信、看电视,会破坏认知功能,降低学习效率。

And, of course, experts note constantattention to devices comes at the cost of other activities that are ultimatelymore valuable, and developmentally important.

当然,专家指出,过于专注某些电子设备是以其他活动为代价的,而这些活动更具意义,对发身心发展也更为重要。

Superficial engagement

轻参与



The key, he notes, is to help parents setappropriate boundaries around screens, to understand what their kids are doingonline, to feel confident that they areis engaging in the right developmental tasks — online or off.

他指出,关键在于帮助父母建立起孩子在屏幕前恰当的评判标准,了解孩子在网上做什么,让他们感到正在做的是项具有正确前景的活动,建立自信,无论是在网络还是在现实中。
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原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:bluebit 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-487916-1-1.html

Parent of a 1, 1, 4, and 10 year oldwritten bySuzanne E.
My son is 10 and for sure he has anaddictive personality, and gaming is his most common addiction presently. If Itell him to shut down x-box, he grabs my phone, I tell him to put down my phoneand he grabs his tablet, them I find myself yelling at him that he is addictedto electronics. It drives me absolutely crazy. I encourage outside play timeand play time with his siblings, but this is still an ongoing battle.

我儿子10岁了,以他的个性很容易上瘾,他常见的上瘾举动就是玩游戏。如果我让他关掉x-box,他就会抢走我的手机,让他放下,他就去找平板电脑,我发现自己会对他的沉迷举动气的哇哇大叫。真是把我逼疯了。我想让他去和兄弟姐妹一起玩,但这就像是一场长期的斗争。

Parent of a 12 year oldwritten by Jack L.
Internet addiction can be very strong tocertain teens, but it is not real to some.

网瘾对青少年来说可是个大问题,对其他人可不全是。



Adult written by IAmALier
Adult. 21. I am completely addicted to mymom. I use it all the time. No one can ever get me off it. I ignore my parentsand sister. I don’t really care about anything anymore. I don’t have socialmedia. Not my thing. But I use Tasty all day. I use my phone 24/7! So yeah I’mobsessed

我成人了,今年21.我完全被网络游戏给迷住了。我整天沉浸其中,没人可以让我摆脱它。我不想和爸爸妈妈姐姐说话。什么都不想搭理,我不上社交网站。什么事都不做,一天24小时都在玩手机。我已经上瘾了。

Kid, 12 years old
Maybe you should take away your child'sphone on school days so they are forced to pay more attention to theirschoolwork. My friend LOVES her phone and her parents take away her phoneduring the school week

也许你家孩子上学前就应该把他的手机拿走,这样他们就不得不专注于学习。我朋友就喜欢玩手机,但她在上学前她爸妈就把她手机拿走了
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