为什么中国历史上最弱小,甚至都没有统一全中国的宋朝,能和蒙古帝国抗争这么久?
2019-08-11 squart 49321
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原文地址:https://www.quora.com/Why-did-the-Song-Dynasty-the-weakest-Chinese-dynasty-that-hadnt-even-united-China-stand-up-against-the-Mongol-Empire-for-so-long
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Why did the Song Dynasty, the weakest Chinese dynasty that hadn't even united China, stand up against the Mongol Empire for so long?

为什么中国历史上最弱小,甚至都没有统一全中国的宋朝,能和蒙古帝国抗争这么久?


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回答一:

Paul Denlinger
Paul Denlinger, US_2016 = Germany_1933
Answered Jul 10, 2017 • Author has 7.5kanswers and 31.2m answer views
The Song dynasty was founded by a LaterZhou general Zhao Kuangyin, who himself harbored a deep distrust for themilitary. The reason for his distrust? The Song succeeded the Tang dynasty, andthe Tang dynasty, after the Anlushan rebellion (755 - 763CE), was heavilyinfluenced by military commissioners which were financially independent of theChinese emperor in Chang’an (now Xi’an).
Chinese dynasties normally study theweaknesses of the dynasties they succeed to make sure that they don’t make thesame mistakes; this was what the Song did with the Tang.

宋朝由后周将军赵匡胤建立,赵匡胤本人对军队有着深深的不信任感。
为什么他不信任军队呢?
宋代承继自唐朝,安禄山叛变(公元755年-公元763年)之后的唐朝,受到割据军阀的严重影响,军阀们财政上独立于当时长安(今西安)的皇帝。
中国的朝代通常会研究(前代)王朝的弱点,确保自己不会犯同样的错误,对于唐朝,宋朝就是这么做的。



回答二:
Chen Yankai
Chen Yankai, Inner Asia History Lover
upxed Dec 6, 2017
First, a little correction:
After Möngke Khan died in the Siege ofDiaoyu Fortress, Mongol empire split. Kublai Khan then declared him as theemperor of Yuan dynasty China in 1271 AD. Thus,the funny fact is: Mongol empireactually never managed to conquer Song.
It’s the Mongol Yuan empire that finallymade it. :)

首先,稍微更正一下:
(蒙哥)可汗在围攻钓鱼城时死亡,蒙古帝国随即分裂。公元1271年,忽必烈宣布建立元朝,所以,这里一个有趣的事实是:蒙古帝国实际上从未征服过宋朝。
是蒙古人建立的元朝最终征服了宋。

Here begins the serious answer:
Simply speaking, Song empire was not soweak as you suppose.
I’ll take an example to make it clear.
We know Song fought against Liao empire inthe 10th and 11th century.
Due to the stereotype that Song wasmilitarily very weak, many people actually forget the fact that Song actuallywon 9 of 18 battles against Liao empire. In the other hand, Liao only won 8battles against Song.
宋辽战争 - 维基百科 (From Wikipedia. A list of all the battles between Liao and Song.)

现在开始严肃的回答这个问题:
简单地说,宋朝并没有你想象中的那么软弱。
我举个例子来说明。
我们知道,在10世纪和11世纪,宋与辽国进行过作战。
宋朝给人的刻板印象是:它在军事实力上很弱。但是,很多人忘记了,在宋朝与辽国进行的战争中,18场战争,宋朝打赢了9场,而辽国只赢了8场。
链接:宋辽战争 - 维基百科。



All in all, the reason that Song couldresist Mongols for so long time was simply because Song was the second mostpowerful country in the world at that time and Mongol army couldn’t reallypenetrate Song empire’s North defending line for more than 40 years.
The reason that Yuan dynasty finallyconquered Song is also simply because in the latter stage, Yuan’s wealth,manpower, weapon technologies and even the number of soldiers all exceededSong.
In the key battle that decided Song’s fate:
Battle of Xiangyang - Wikipedia
It’s actually 8000 Song soldiers vs 100,000 Yuan soldiers…
Song’s fate had already been determined asearly as when Mongols’ decision of expanding to the Western Asia and EasternEurope was made.

所以,总结说来,宋朝之所以能够长期抵抗蒙古,是因为当时的宋朝是世界上第二大的强国,蒙古军队40多年来,从没有真正的进入过宋朝北部的防御线。
元朝最终征服宋朝的原因也很简单,因为在这之后,元朝在财富、人力、武器甚至兵力方面都超过了宋朝。
在决定宋朝命运的关键战役中:襄阳之战中,实际上是8000名宋兵对抗10万名元兵。
宋朝的命运,早在蒙古人决定向西亚和东欧扩张的时候就已经决定了。

回答三:

Jinxin Liu
Jinxin Liu, studied at RensselaerPolytechnic Institute
Answered Jul 10, 2017 • Author has 303answers and 820.1k answer views
Song was the most advanced and wealthydynasty in Chinese history. And its military power was not that weak as peoplemight think. It was just unlucky: some strategically significant regions, suchas 幽云十六州, were lost to other countries even before Song was founded; Songhappened to face several powerful neighbors.
Given the extremely disadvantaged startingcondition, Song had been doing pretty good. It lasted for over 300 years—thesecond longest dynasty after Qin.

宋朝,是中国历史上最先进、最富裕的朝代,它的军事力量并不像人们想象的那么弱小。不过,在宋朝建立之前,一些具有重要战略意义的地区,比如幽云十六州,就已经被其他国家占据了,而宋朝的几个邻国,恰恰都是很强大的。
如果考虑到宋朝的先天条件,那宋朝的表现其实一直还不错,它延续了300多年的时间,是自秦朝之后,延续时间第二久的王朝。

回答四:



That wealth meant they could build verypowerful fortifications, man and maintain a very large army and navy, and equipit with the latest and most advanced weaponry available.
The Mongols ultimately had to draw upon theresources of their entire empire, obtaining the resources they needed tooverrun the Song.
Indeed, if it were not for the incompetenceof their leadership in the final years, it is quite conceivable that they couldhave held off the Mongols indefinitely.

财富意味着他们可以建造非常强大的防御工事,管理和维护一支庞大的陆军和海军,并为其配备最新和最先进的武器。
最后,蒙古人不得不利用整个帝国的资源,才能满足征服宋朝所需。
事实上,如果不是因为宋朝最后的几年时间里,领导者能力不足,他们很有可能可以无限期的阻止蒙古人。

回答六:

Pun Anansakunwat
Pun Anansakunwat, Read Chinese history for17 years
Answered Sep 2, 2017 • Author has 286answers and 1.1m answer views
Despite not ruling the entire realm, SongDynasty had many strengths.
Song Dynasty was so rich. The economy ofthe south prospered. They managed to build huge armies, and sustained them fora long time. Song could easily fight the war of attrition (Battle of Xiangyang)at the border for years.
Song Dynasty had advanced technologies. Forexample, Song dynasty used gunpowder weapons to fight the nomads for decades.
3. The southern part of China has theYangtze River as a natural barrier. If Song navy had naval supremacy, Mongolcavalry was useless. Later, Kublai Khan countered this by ordering Han Chinesefrom the North to build his own navy as well.

宋代虽然没有统治整个(中国),但拥有许多的优势。
(一)、宋朝很富裕,南方地区经济很繁荣,他们设法建立起庞大的军队,并维持了很长的时间,宋朝可以轻松地在边疆打很多年的消耗战争(襄阳之战)。
(二)、宋代技术很先进,例如,宋朝用火药与游牧民族作战。
(三)、中国南方,拥有长江作为天然屏障,如果宋朝拥有水上霸权,蒙古骑兵就无可奈何。
后来,忽必烈下令北方汉人建立自己的水军,以此来制衡(南宋)。

4. Song Dynasty had fortified its northernborder, especially at Xiangyang. The Mongols were never good at siege warfare.Thus, it took years and many lives for them to take Xiangyang, one of thelargest fortified cities.
5. Even though Song dynasty’sadministration was in disarray, the dynasty possessed several loyal and capablegenerals. They fought bravely, and brought the mighty Mongols to stalemate foryears.
6. Mongol troops’ unfamiliarity with a hot,wet southern area of China was also a factor. This made Mongol troops much lesseffective in fighting battle-hardened Southern Chinese troops that desperatelyfought for their homeland.

(四)、宋朝加强了它北部边界的(防御),特别是襄阳,蒙古人不擅长围攻战。因此,他们花了很多年和很多士兵的性命,才把襄阳这个防守最严密的城市攻下来。
(五)、尽管宋朝管理混乱,但仍然有几位忠心耿耿的将领,他们勇敢地战斗,与蒙古人抗衡了很多年。
(六)、蒙古军队对中国南方炎热潮湿地区不(熟悉)适应,也是一个原因,这使得蒙古军队在战斗中的效率大大降低,而中国南方的军队则拼命为祖国而战。



But Song dynasty in deed maximized theirdefensive geographical advantage when defend against the Mongol Empire. This isonly reason Song dynasty can survive until 1276 (Song Capital was bleached on1276, by normal standard it should be counted until 1276, but somehow mosttexts uses 1279, the last fall of Song resistance as cut off date) . Mongolsare not used to combat on rivers, seas, forest, and mountainous region, this iswhy Song was able to survive for that long.
Also Song was a giant of the era, it mightbe weak, but still a giant body, economic strength is still one of the best ofthe era, So Mongol still taking a long time to break Song defense andeventually digest it.

但实际上,宋朝在防御蒙古的时候,最大限度地发挥了地理优势,这是宋朝能够生存到1276年的唯一原因(1276年宋都临安被攻破,所以按照正常的算法,宋朝截止到1276年为止,但是不知道什么原因,大多数文献都按照1279年(即宋朝最后抵抗的时间),作为宋朝的结束时间)。蒙古人不习惯在江河、海洋、森林和山区作战,这就是宋代能够长期生存的原因。
还有宋朝是一个时代的巨人,它可能很弱小,但仍然拥有巨大的体量,它的经济实力仍然是当时最强的,所以蒙古人花了很长的时间,才打破宋朝的防御,并最终征服了它。
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