如果一个人吞下元素周期表上每种元素的一克会发生什么?
2019-10-21 翻译熊 14306
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原文地址:https://www.quora.com/What-would-happen-if-a-human-swallowed-one-gram-of-each-element-on-the-periodic-table
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What would happen if a human swallowed one gram of each element on the periodic table?

如果一个人吞下元素周期表上每种元素的一克会发生什么?


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Edmond Yu
I’ll begin from the top.
H, hydrogen: if my calculations are correct, 1 gram of hydrogen should have a volume of 12.4 L. Good luck swallowing that much gas, and note that a spark may ignite you.
He, helium: 1 gram of He is 5.6 L, but at least you don’t have to be cautious about sparks.
Li, lithium: 1 g of Li is just 1.8 cm³. It will react with water, and it will form a strong base, lithium hydroxide. It will react with stomach acid and become lithium chloride in your stomach. Unpleasant but not immediately lethal.
Be, beryllium: beryllium is toxic, it may cause cell necrosis and potentially causes cancer. Itself and beryllium oxide does form a toxic salt beryllium chloride in the stomach, but it is unlikely to become fatal. It precipitates to Be₃(PO₄)₂ , beryllium phosphate in the intestines.
B, boron: basically nothing. 1 gram is far from the lethal dose.
C, carbon: little or nothing.
N, nitrogen: 1 g of N₂ is 0.8L, still a significant amount of gas. You face the same problem of having too much gas in your stomach.
O, oxygen: same as nitrogen for the gas itself. However, considering that you swallow all elements at the same time, it might react with the hydrogen in the beginning if conditions are satisfied. It also may react with metals to form their corresponding oxides.
F, fluorine: 1 g of F₂ is 0.589L. It will violently react with everything inside your body and form hydrofluoric acid, which later creates sufficiently many fluoride ions to combine with the calcium and magnesium ions in your blood. You most certainly die from this. Also, it will explosively react with the hydrogen gas in the beginning. Also reacts with the LiCl and BeCl₂ salts to form precipitates (if any of those salts are still present), and reacts with boron and carbon. The fluorine will certainly run out before the other elements.

Edmond Yu 化学硕士
我将会从周期表上面开始。
氢:如果我的计算是正确的,1克氢的体积应该是12.4L。吞下这么多气体祝你好运,注意,一点火星可能就会点燃你。
氦:1克氦是5.6 L,但至少你不用担心火花。

锂:1克只有1.8立方厘米。它会和水反应,形成强碱,氢氧化锂。它会与胃酸发生反应,在你的胃里变成氯化锂。不愉快但不是立即致命。
铍:铍是有毒的,它可能导致细胞坏死,并可能导致癌症。铍本身和氧化铍在胃里形成一种有毒的氯化铍盐,但不太可能致命。它会在肠道变成Be₃(PO₄)₂铍磷酸盐沉淀物。
硼:基本上什么都不会发生。1克远不是致死剂量。

碳:有点影响或者没影响。
氮:1克N₂是0.8升,仍然算大量的气体。你也面临着同样的问题——胃里有太多的气体。
氧:和氮气一样,都是气体。然而,考虑到你同时吞下所有的元素,如果条件满足,它可能在一开始就与氢发生反应。它也可以与金属反应形成相应的氧化物。

氟:1克F₂是0.589L。它会与你体内的一切物质发生剧烈反应,形成氢氟酸,随后产生足够多的氟离子与血液中的钙离子和镁离子结合。你肯定会死于这种病。而且在开始的时候会和氢气发生爆炸反应。也与氯化锂和氯化铍盐反应并形成沉淀(如果这些盐仍存在),并与硼和碳反应。氟肯定会比其他元素先耗尽。
氖:有影响也可能没有。1克氖是1.11L。和你经历的事情比起来,这根本算不了什么。

Ne, neon: little or nothing. 1 g of neon is 1.11 L which fills 2 water bottles. It isn’t even that much compared with the stuff that you have gone through.
Na, sodium: will react explosively inside your stomach and esophagus. Forms a strong base sodium hydroxide, then sodium chloride in your stomach after a neutralization reaction. Sodium hydroxide will definitely irritate your esophagus, if you still have one. Highly unpleasant but not the worst. Not necessarily lethal by itself.
Mg, magnesium: may neutralize some of your stomach acid. Helps exhaust the fluorine (both the gas and the ions) faster, if there are still any left.
Al, aluminum: Al³⁺ may affect the nervous system but you probably don’t care.
Si, silicon: little or nothing. Helps exhaust fluorine gas, if there are any left.
P, phosphorus: may spontaneously combust. It will burn your stomach if you still have one. It is toxic and it is lethal. After burning it will create some P₄O₁₀, phosphorus oxide which dehydrates extremely well.
S, sulphur: I don’t know about this one. Likely nothing.
Cl, chlorine: 1 g of Cl₂ is 0.308 L. Reacts with elements in the beginning. It will irritate whatever internal organs you have left, although less violently. May react with hydrogen gas in the beginning.
Ar, argon: nothing exciting.
K, potassium: reacts with water in your body, creates a base which is later neutralized. Similar to sodium. Expect an explosion.
Ca, calcium: Ca reacts with water although slowly. Although it does not explode, it may create a considerable amount of heat. Similar to potassium, becomes a base and is then neutralized. May react with chlorine gas, helps react with remaining fluorine ions.
Sc, scandium: moderately reactive. May form ScCl₃ salts, but will more likely decrease the volume of your wallet if you buy it.
Ti, titanium: may form TiCl₃. Not much happens.


Ga, gallium: I don’t know, but I think not much will happen.
Ge, germanium: probably nothing.
As, arsenic: highly toxic, 1 gram of it is sufficient.
Se, selenium: elemental selenium is moderately toxic, but 1 gram is less than its lethal dose.
Br, bromine: highly corrosive, and its smell is hideous. Since it is fairly reactive it may react with metals that did not form ions, but noticeably it reacts violently with aluminum, if there are any left. 1 g of bromine is not a sufficient amount to react with all of the other elements. May precipitate with some ions.
Kr, krypton: nothing.
Rb, rubidium: expect explosions. Similar to potassium. I expect that you don’t have a digestive system anymore at this point.
Sr, strontium: similar to calcium, and expect a strong reaction with water.
Y, yttrium: I don’t know much about it, I expect a salt to form.
Zr, zirconium: this element is fairly not reactive, so not much happens. It may oxidize but will likely not react.
Nb, niobium: this element is famous for corrosive resistant, so I don’t expect much to happen.
Mo, molybdenum: I don’t know, but probably corrosive resistant.
Tc, technetium: the first radioactive element. I don’t know what particles Tc emits but internally it should be quite harmful.
Ru, ruthenium: corrosive resistant.
Rh, rhodium: also corrosive resistant. At this point your wallet should be empty, even though 1 gram of everything isn’t that expensive.
Pd, palladium: also corrosive resistant, and expensive.
Ag, silver: if silver somehow reacts with anything inside your remains it will form a precipitate with chloride ions or bromide ions.
Cd, cadmium: highly toxic and it is famous for it. Doesn’t matter anymore.
In, indium: I don’t know
Sn, tin: not much will happen.
Sb, antimony: its ions are supposed to cause vomiting though I doubt you are able to.
Te, tellurium: not much chemically, but you now smell like rotten garlic.
I, iodine: interesting. Reactive, but not necessarily with water. It will precipitate some ions in the beginning. It will probably not stay in its element form for long.
Xe, xenon: nothing. This is the last boring element.
Cs, caesium: expect explosions, the most violent of them (for now).
Ba, barium: toxic in a very different way but you probably don’t care.. Reacts fairly violent with water, does not explode. It may displace some calcium or magnesium ions in your blood.
La, lanthanum: the most reactive lanthanide out of all of them. Will form an ion. Could cause blood clotting issues.
Ce, cerium: should be similar to lanthanum.
Pr, praseodymium: I don’t know.
Nd, neodymium: may form an ion, and neodymium chloride has a similar toxicity to table salt.

钙:钙与水反应缓慢。虽然它不会爆炸,但可能会产生大量的热量。类似于钾,变成碱,然后被中和。可与氯气反应,有助于与剩余的氟离子反应。
钪:适度的反应。可能形成ScCl₃,但更有可能会减少你的钱包体积,如果你要买的话。
钛:可能形成TiCl₃,没什么事儿。



Pm, promethium: Pm is radioactive, it emits β particles and gamma rays. In simple terms, lead boards will not save you from its radiation, let alone ingested. Sufficiently many promethium ingested will eventually radiate and damage most internal organs for a healthy person, but you probably don’t have too many of them left anyway. For what’s left it will suffer damage from it. What I don’t know, is how much damage can just 1 gram of it cause.
Sm, samarium: fun fact: samarium oxide absorbs neutron radiation, so it might help with the damage caused by promethium.
Eu, europium: at this point, the effects that lanthanides do to living organisms is generally under study. Probably forms europium chloride hexahydrate after ingested.
Gd, gadolinium: probably not much.
Tb, terbium: I don’t know.
Dy, dysprosium: I don’t know.
Ho, holmium: I don’t know. 1 gram is probably not lethal.
Er, erbium: apparently erbium (IV) chloride can have different effects to the immune system depending on its dose. It’s curve looks like stimulates->nothing->stimulates->inhibits and it’s quite weird.
Tm, thulium: I don’t know.
Yb, ytterbium: I don’t know.
Lu, lutetium: we are finishing the lanthanides, which most elements have unknown effects to humans.
Hf, hafnium: I only know that it’s expensive, but probably not much will happen.
Ta, tantalum: resistant to corrosion, so nothing.
W, tungsten: its compounds are toxic. May cause fatigue, fever or rash. However in elemental state it should be stable.
Re, rhenium: probably not much.
Os, osmium: at elemental state I don’t know, but highly toxic as an oxide.
Ir, iridium: expensive and resistant to corrosion.
Pt, platinum: expensive and resistant to corrosion.
Au, gold: same as above.
Hg, mercury: we all know that it’s toxic, but in a healthy person not much will actually happen if 1 g of Hg is ingested. Inhaling it would be much more dangerous though. Likely will not form an ion.
Tl, thallium: this element is outlawed and is illegal to possess without permit. It is highly toxic and extremely difficult to treat. In fact it is so infamous on its toxicity, and I don’t know the technical details about it.
Pb, lead: indeed harmful, and it’s ions attack the brain and kidneys. However it’s toxicity is quite mild compared to the previous ones. Might form an ion and precipitate with iodine or bromine if conditions permit.
Bi, bismuth: fairly not reactive.
Po, polonium: the second (third?) highly radioactive element. Causes tumours and other damages on healthy people.
At, astatine: its half life is 8.3 hours at longest, and it is so radioactive that it will become a gas if you could have 1 g of it. There are no records of its properties as no one could obtain a large amount of it. Will definitely boil parts of the remains of your body.
Rn, radon: unknown, as a gas it should be inert and radioactive. Should be similar to polonium.
Fr, francium: this one has a half life measured in minutes, for the more stable isotopes. Chemically it should create a big explosion, and it decays to At, Rn and Ra. Similar to At but amplified.
Ra, radium: after the discovery of radium, reports of its damage were unknown, until people who worked with it started having swollen jaws. Should react explosively with water and form a salt, but that is not important anymore.
Ac, actinium: highly radioactive, should be a thousand times stronger than Ra. It is extremely expensive as only grams of it are produced. Chemically should act similar to La, should form an ion.
Th, thorium: radioactive but surprisingly has a low intensity. Probably not too reactive chemically.

锆:这种元素没有活性,所以不会发生很多反应。它可能氧化,但不太会发生反应。
铌:这种元素以耐腐蚀著称,所以我觉得不会有什么影响。
钼:我不知道,但可能耐腐蚀。
锝:第一种放射性元素。我不知道释放出什么粒子,但在体内它应该是相当有害的。
钌:耐腐蚀。

铑:也耐腐蚀。在这一时候,你的钱包应该已经空了,即使1克不是那么贵。
钯:也耐腐蚀,价格昂贵。
银:如果银以某种方式与你体内的任何东西发生反应,它会与氯离子或溴离子形成沉淀。
镉:剧毒,并以此著称。但不重要了。



Pa, protactinium: you require a nuclear reactor to produce one gram of it. Highly radioactive as usual.
U, uranium: radioactive as usual, but similar to Th. Should have toxicity similar to heavy metals.
Np, neptunium: similar to U but stronger radioactivity.
Pu, plutonium: a common myth is that plutonium is the second most toxic substance on earth. Strong radioactivity, similar to Ac.
Am, americium: I don’t know, but probably extremely expensive to make. Definitely very radioactive.
Cm, curium: should be similar to Am.
Bk, berkelium: itself not too radioactive, emits β particles. 1 g of it would cost too much to make, if that’s even possible. Decays to Cf.
Cf, californium: emits gamma rays, which is very dangerous. It is also insanely expensive to make.
Es, einsteinium: I don’t know, should be similar to Bk.
Fm, fermium: this element cannot be created in bulk (and by in bulk I mean measured in milligrams), so if you ever obtain 1 g of fermium please tell me how you did it.
Md, mendelevium: to my knowledge the element serves no practical purpose because it has too short half life and too little of them.
No, nobelium: same as above. Has a half life of 1 hour.
Lr, lawrencium: same as above
Rf, rutherfordium: not much is known about this element. At this point, only micrograms or nanograms of this element (and beyond) have ever been produced.
Db, dubnium: same as Rf
Sg, seaborgium: same as Db
Bh, bohrium: it’s most stable isotope has a half life of 0.1s so I am fairly certain that once one gram of this element is placed inside you, you will explode and be obliterated instantly.
Hs, hassium: even worse than Bh.
Mt, meitnerium: even worse than Hs.
Ds, darmstadium: interestingly has a much longer half life of 7.4 seconds. Similar to Sg. Hopefully you aren’t obliterated instantly this time but still expect nuclear explosions.
Rg, rogentium: same as Mt
Cn, copernicium: even better than Ds. Due to its longer half life (minutes) we know some of its chemical properties. Doesn’t help with the nuclear explosions though.
Nh, nihonium: a few atoms of this have been created in Japan.
Fl, flerovium: unknown, similar to Ds. At this point I’m just listing element names because so little is know about them.
Mc, Moscovium: similar to Fl
Lv, livermorium: similar to Mc or Mt.
Ts, tennessine: similar to Lv
Og, oganesson: the last element on the periodic table. To this date 3 atoms of this element have been created. If you place 1 g of this anywhere in the universe, it will be gone in an instant.
Uue, ununennium: jokingly, probably explodes most violent but I can’t say anything about it because it has yet to be discovered. It may not even exist. I don’t know about it, neither does anyone on this world.
In conclusion: your organs are now a mix of unidentifiable substances, with 1 gram of each element, many in the form of ions… before element 100. After that you explode violently and you are then disintegrated.

铒:显然,氯化铒对免疫系统的不同影响取决于它的剂量。它的影响曲线看起来像刺激->没什么影响->刺激->抑制,这很奇怪。
铥:我不知道。
镱:我不知道。
镥:我们正在研究镧系元素,这些元素对人类有未知的影响。
铪:我只知道这很贵,但可能不会发生什么事。
钽:耐腐蚀,所以不会发生什么事。

钨:它的化合物是有毒的。可能引起疲劳、发烧或皮疹。但是在单质状态下应该是稳定的。
铼:可能没什么影响。
锇:我不知道其元素状态,但作为氧化物是有剧毒的。
铱:昂贵且耐腐蚀。

铂:昂贵且耐腐蚀。
金:同上。
汞:我们都知道它是有毒的,但对于一个健康的人来说,如果摄入1克汞,实际上不会发生什么,吸入反而会更危险。很可能不会形成离子。
铊:这种元素是非法的,未经允许不得拥有。它是剧毒,很难治疗。事实上,它的毒性是臭名昭著的,我不知道它的技术细节。
铅:确实有害,它的离子会攻击大脑和肾脏。然而,它的毒性与之前的元素相比是相当温和的。如果条件允许,可以形成离子并与碘或溴沉淀。
铋:相当不活泼。

钋:第二种(还是第三种?)高放射性元素。对健康人造成肿瘤和其他损害。
砹:它的半衰期最多是8.3个小时,它的放射性太强了,如果你能有1克的话,它最后会变成气体。没有关于它的太多记录,因为没有人能大量持有它。但肯定会把你身体的一部分煮熟。

氡:未知,作为气体应是惰性和放射性的。应该和钋相似。
钫:对于更稳定的同位素来说,它的半衰期以分钟为单位。化学上它会产生一个大爆炸,然后衰变为砹、氡和镭。类似于砹,但放大了。
镭:在镭被发现后,关于它的危害的报告是未知的,直到与它一起工作的人开始有肿胀的下巴。应该与水发生爆炸反应形成盐,但这已经不重要了。



Og:元素周期表上的最后一个元素。到目前为止,已经制造了3个这种元素的原子。如果你把1克这种东西放在宇宙的任何地方,它会在一瞬间消失。
Uue:开玩笑地说,可能爆炸最猛烈,但我关于它我说不了任何东西,因为它还没有被发现。它甚至可能不存在。我不知道,这个世界上也没有人知道。

总之:在元素100之前,每种元素1克,许多以离子的形式存在,你的器官现在是一种不可识别物质的混合物……。元素100之后,你猛烈地爆炸,然后你被分解。

Dave Consiglio, I have been a science teacher and professor for nearly 20 years.
Answered Thu
Almost all elements - nothing, or nearly nothing.
The important few:
The non-radioactive alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs): You’re going to burn your mouth and/or esophagus and stomach badly. You might die, but probably not. You might blow off your teeth if you chew these. Yikes.
The halogens (F, Cl, Br, I): You’re going to burn your lungs (for the gases), or your mouth and digestive system (for Br especially, and also I). You might die, but probably not. It’s gonna be horrible, though. Don’t do this.
The poisonous non-radioactive elements (As, Hg, Pb, In, Tl, a whole bunch of the rare Earths): You’re gonna have a bad day, maybe your last day, depending on your mass and sensitivity to various toxic elements. But some toxic elements (like Hg, for example) aren’t well absorbed. You’ll just have some metallic poop and potentially some side effects.
The radioactive elements (Elements 84 - 104-ish, Pm, Tc): You’re going to have a really bad day, probably your last day, with a few exceptions. Uranium, Thorium, and a few others of these elements are probably not radioactive enough to kill you outright, though they might well give you stomach (or some other organ) cancer, which might get you later on. But many of these elements are radioactive enough to cause some serious radiation sickness and possibly death. Do not eat.
The superradioactive elements (104 - 118). These explode in your facehole, making a much larger facehole. Briefly. Then you die.

Dave Consiglio我当科学老师和教授已经快20年了。
几乎所有元素吞下去的话——没什么影响,或者影响很小。
只有几点重要的:
非放射性碱金属(锂,钠,钾,铷,铯):会严重烧伤你的嘴和或食道和胃。你可能会死,但可能不会。如果你嚼这些东西,你的牙齿可能会被刮掉。呵。
卤素(F, Cl, Br, I):会灼伤你的肺(因为有气体),或者你的嘴和消化系统(尤其是Br,还有I),会很恐怖。不要这样做。

有毒的非放射性元素(砷,汞,铅,铅,所有稀有元素):你将会有一个糟糕的一天,也许是你的最后一天,取决于你的质量和对各种有毒元素的敏感性。
放射性元素(84—104, Pm, Tc):你将会有非常糟糕的一天,可能是你的最后一天,除了一些例外。

铀、钍和其他一些元素的放射性可能不足以直接杀死你,尽管它们很可能会让你的胃(或其他器官)患上癌症,这可能会让你以后患上癌症。但其中许多元素的放射性足以导致一些严重的辐射疾病,甚至死亡,别吃。
超放射性元素(104 - 118)。这些在你脸洞上发生的爆炸,会使你的脸动变得更大。简单说,你死了。
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