2019-10-21 翻译熊 14306
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:翻译熊 转载请注明出处

What would happen if a human swallowed one gram of each element on the periodic table?


原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:翻译熊 转载请注明出处

Edmond Yu
I’ll begin from the top.
H, hydrogen: if my calculations are correct, 1 gram of hydrogen should have a volume of 12.4 L. Good luck swallowing that much gas, and note that a spark may ignite you.
He, helium: 1 gram of He is 5.6 L, but at least you don’t have to be cautious about sparks.
Li, lithium: 1 g of Li is just 1.8 cm³. It will react with water, and it will form a strong base, lithium hydroxide. It will react with stomach acid and become lithium chloride in your stomach. Unpleasant but not immediately lethal.
Be, beryllium: beryllium is toxic, it may cause cell necrosis and potentially causes cancer. Itself and beryllium oxide does form a toxic salt beryllium chloride in the stomach, but it is unlikely to become fatal. It precipitates to Be₃(PO₄)₂ , beryllium phosphate in the intestines.
B, boron: basically nothing. 1 gram is far from the lethal dose.
C, carbon: little or nothing.
N, nitrogen: 1 g of N₂ is 0.8L, still a significant amount of gas. You face the same problem of having too much gas in your stomach.
O, oxygen: same as nitrogen for the gas itself. However, considering that you swallow all elements at the same time, it might react with the hydrogen in the beginning if conditions are satisfied. It also may react with metals to form their corresponding oxides.
F, fluorine: 1 g of F₂ is 0.589L. It will violently react with everything inside your body and form hydrofluoric acid, which later creates sufficiently many fluoride ions to combine with the calcium and magnesium ions in your blood. You most certainly die from this. Also, it will explosively react with the hydrogen gas in the beginning. Also reacts with the LiCl and BeCl₂ salts to form precipitates (if any of those salts are still present), and reacts with boron and carbon. The fluorine will certainly run out before the other elements.

Edmond Yu 化学硕士
氦:1克氦是5.6 L,但至少你不用担心火花。




Ne, neon: little or nothing. 1 g of neon is 1.11 L which fills 2 water bottles. It isn’t even that much compared with the stuff that you have gone through.
Na, sodium: will react explosively inside your stomach and esophagus. Forms a strong base sodium hydroxide, then sodium chloride in your stomach after a neutralization reaction. Sodium hydroxide will definitely irritate your esophagus, if you still have one. Highly unpleasant but not the worst. Not necessarily lethal by itself.
Mg, magnesium: may neutralize some of your stomach acid. Helps exhaust the fluorine (both the gas and the ions) faster, if there are still any left.
Al, aluminum: Al³⁺ may affect the nervous system but you probably don’t care.
Si, silicon: little or nothing. Helps exhaust fluorine gas, if there are any left.
P, phosphorus: may spontaneously combust. It will burn your stomach if you still have one. It is toxic and it is lethal. After burning it will create some P₄O₁₀, phosphorus oxide which dehydrates extremely well.
S, sulphur: I don’t know about this one. Likely nothing.
Cl, chlorine: 1 g of Cl₂ is 0.308 L. Reacts with elements in the beginning. It will irritate whatever internal organs you have left, although less violently. May react with hydrogen gas in the beginning.
Ar, argon: nothing exciting.
K, potassium: reacts with water in your body, creates a base which is later neutralized. Similar to sodium. Expect an explosion.
Ca, calcium: Ca reacts with water although slowly. Although it does not explode, it may create a considerable amount of heat. Similar to potassium, becomes a base and is then neutralized. May react with chlorine gas, helps react with remaining fluorine ions.
Sc, scandium: moderately reactive. May form ScCl₃ salts, but will more likely decrease the volume of your wallet if you buy it.
Ti, titanium: may form TiCl₃. Not much happens.

Ga, gallium: I don’t know, but I think not much will happen.
Ge, germanium: probably nothing.
As, arsenic: highly toxic, 1 gram of it is sufficient.
Se, selenium: elemental selenium is moderately toxic, but 1 gram is less than its lethal dose.
Br, bromine: highly corrosive, and its smell is hideous. Since it is fairly reactive it may react with metals that did not form ions, but noticeably it reacts violently with aluminum, if there are any left. 1 g of bromine is not a sufficient amount to react with all of the other elements. May precipitate with some ions.
Kr, krypton: nothing.
Rb, rubidium: expect explosions. Similar to potassium. I expect that you don’t have a digestive system anymore at this point.
Sr, strontium: similar to calcium, and expect a strong reaction with water.
Y, yttrium: I don’t know much about it, I expect a salt to form.
Zr, zirconium: this element is fairly not reactive, so not much happens. It may oxidize but will likely not react.
Nb, niobium: this element is famous for corrosive resistant, so I don’t expect much to happen.
Mo, molybdenum: I don’t know, but probably corrosive resistant.
Tc, technetium: the first radioactive element. I don’t know what particles Tc emits but internally it should be quite harmful.
Ru, ruthenium: corrosive resistant.
Rh, rhodium: also corrosive resistant. At this point your wallet should be empty, even though 1 gram of everything isn’t that expensive.
Pd, palladium: also corrosive resistant, and expensive.
Ag, silver: if silver somehow reacts with anything inside your remains it will form a precipitate with chloride ions or bromide ions.
Cd, cadmium: highly toxic and it is famous for it. Doesn’t matter anymore.
In, indium: I don’t know
Sn, tin: not much will happen.
Sb, antimony: its ions are supposed to cause vomiting though I doubt you are able to.
Te, tellurium: not much chemically, but you now smell like rotten garlic.
I, iodine: interesting. Reactive, but not necessarily with water. It will precipitate some ions in the beginning. It will probably not stay in its element form for long.
Xe, xenon: nothing. This is the last boring element.
Cs, caesium: expect explosions, the most violent of them (for now).
Ba, barium: toxic in a very different way but you probably don’t care.. Reacts fairly violent with water, does not explode. It may displace some calcium or magnesium ions in your blood.
La, lanthanum: the most reactive lanthanide out of all of them. Will form an ion. Could cause blood clotting issues.
Ce, cerium: should be similar to lanthanum.
Pr, praseodymium: I don’t know.
Nd, neodymium: may form an ion, and neodymium chloride has a similar toxicity to table salt.


Pm, promethium: Pm is radioactive, it emits β particles and gamma rays. In simple terms, lead boards will not save you from its radiation, let alone ingested. Sufficiently many promethium ingested will eventually radiate and damage most internal organs for a healthy person, but you probably don’t have too many of them left anyway. For what’s left it will suffer damage from it. What I don’t know, is how much damage can just 1 gram of it cause.
Sm, samarium: fun fact: samarium oxide absorbs neutron radiation, so it might help with the damage caused by promethium.
Eu, europium: at this point, the effects that lanthanides do to living organisms is generally under study. Probably forms europium chloride hexahydrate after ingested.
Gd, gadolinium: probably not much.
Tb, terbium: I don’t know.
Dy, dysprosium: I don’t know.
Ho, holmium: I don’t know. 1 gram is probably not lethal.
Er, erbium: apparently erbium (IV) chloride can have different effects to the immune system depending on its dose. It’s curve looks like stimulates->nothing->stimulates->inhibits and it’s quite weird.
Tm, thulium: I don’t know.
Yb, ytterbium: I don’t know.
Lu, lutetium: we are finishing the lanthanides, which most elements have unknown effects to humans.
Hf, hafnium: I only know that it’s expensive, but probably not much will happen.
Ta, tantalum: resistant to corrosion, so nothing.
W, tungsten: its compounds are toxic. May cause fatigue, fever or rash. However in elemental state it should be stable.
Re, rhenium: probably not much.
Os, osmium: at elemental state I don’t know, but highly toxic as an oxide.
Ir, iridium: expensive and resistant to corrosion.
Pt, platinum: expensive and resistant to corrosion.
Au, gold: same as above.
Hg, mercury: we all know that it’s toxic, but in a healthy person not much will actually happen if 1 g of Hg is ingested. Inhaling it would be much more dangerous though. Likely will not form an ion.
Tl, thallium: this element is outlawed and is illegal to possess without permit. It is highly toxic and extremely difficult to treat. In fact it is so infamous on its toxicity, and I don’t know the technical details about it.
Pb, lead: indeed harmful, and it’s ions attack the brain and kidneys. However it’s toxicity is quite mild compared to the previous ones. Might form an ion and precipitate with iodine or bromine if conditions permit.
Bi, bismuth: fairly not reactive.
Po, polonium: the second (third?) highly radioactive element. Causes tumours and other damages on healthy people.
At, astatine: its half life is 8.3 hours at longest, and it is so radioactive that it will become a gas if you could have 1 g of it. There are no records of its properties as no one could obtain a large amount of it. Will definitely boil parts of the remains of your body.
Rn, radon: unknown, as a gas it should be inert and radioactive. Should be similar to polonium.
Fr, francium: this one has a half life measured in minutes, for the more stable isotopes. Chemically it should create a big explosion, and it decays to At, Rn and Ra. Similar to At but amplified.
Ra, radium: after the discovery of radium, reports of its damage were unknown, until people who worked with it started having swollen jaws. Should react explosively with water and form a salt, but that is not important anymore.
Ac, actinium: highly radioactive, should be a thousand times stronger than Ra. It is extremely expensive as only grams of it are produced. Chemically should act similar to La, should form an ion.
Th, thorium: radioactive but surprisingly has a low intensity. Probably not too reactive chemically.



Pa, protactinium: you require a nuclear reactor to produce one gram of it. Highly radioactive as usual.
U, uranium: radioactive as usual, but similar to Th. Should have toxicity similar to heavy metals.
Np, neptunium: similar to U but stronger radioactivity.
Pu, plutonium: a common myth is that plutonium is the second most toxic substance on earth. Strong radioactivity, similar to Ac.
Am, americium: I don’t know, but probably extremely expensive to make. Definitely very radioactive.
Cm, curium: should be similar to Am.
Bk, berkelium: itself not too radioactive, emits β particles. 1 g of it would cost too much to make, if that’s even possible. Decays to Cf.
Cf, californium: emits gamma rays, which is very dangerous. It is also insanely expensive to make.
Es, einsteinium: I don’t know, should be similar to Bk.
Fm, fermium: this element cannot be created in bulk (and by in bulk I mean measured in milligrams), so if you ever obtain 1 g of fermium please tell me how you did it.
Md, mendelevium: to my knowledge the element serves no practical purpose because it has too short half life and too little of them.
No, nobelium: same as above. Has a half life of 1 hour.
Lr, lawrencium: same as above
Rf, rutherfordium: not much is known about this element. At this point, only micrograms or nanograms of this element (and beyond) have ever been produced.
Db, dubnium: same as Rf
Sg, seaborgium: same as Db
Bh, bohrium: it’s most stable isotope has a half life of 0.1s so I am fairly certain that once one gram of this element is placed inside you, you will explode and be obliterated instantly.
Hs, hassium: even worse than Bh.
Mt, meitnerium: even worse than Hs.
Ds, darmstadium: interestingly has a much longer half life of 7.4 seconds. Similar to Sg. Hopefully you aren’t obliterated instantly this time but still expect nuclear explosions.
Rg, rogentium: same as Mt
Cn, copernicium: even better than Ds. Due to its longer half life (minutes) we know some of its chemical properties. Doesn’t help with the nuclear explosions though.
Nh, nihonium: a few atoms of this have been created in Japan.
Fl, flerovium: unknown, similar to Ds. At this point I’m just listing element names because so little is know about them.
Mc, Moscovium: similar to Fl
Lv, livermorium: similar to Mc or Mt.
Ts, tennessine: similar to Lv
Og, oganesson: the last element on the periodic table. To this date 3 atoms of this element have been created. If you place 1 g of this anywhere in the universe, it will be gone in an instant.
Uue, ununennium: jokingly, probably explodes most violent but I can’t say anything about it because it has yet to be discovered. It may not even exist. I don’t know about it, neither does anyone on this world.
In conclusion: your organs are now a mix of unidentifiable substances, with 1 gram of each element, many in the form of ions… before element 100. After that you explode violently and you are then disintegrated.








Dave Consiglio, I have been a science teacher and professor for nearly 20 years.
Answered Thu
Almost all elements - nothing, or nearly nothing.
The important few:
The non-radioactive alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs): You’re going to burn your mouth and/or esophagus and stomach badly. You might die, but probably not. You might blow off your teeth if you chew these. Yikes.
The halogens (F, Cl, Br, I): You’re going to burn your lungs (for the gases), or your mouth and digestive system (for Br especially, and also I). You might die, but probably not. It’s gonna be horrible, though. Don’t do this.
The poisonous non-radioactive elements (As, Hg, Pb, In, Tl, a whole bunch of the rare Earths): You’re gonna have a bad day, maybe your last day, depending on your mass and sensitivity to various toxic elements. But some toxic elements (like Hg, for example) aren’t well absorbed. You’ll just have some metallic poop and potentially some side effects.
The radioactive elements (Elements 84 - 104-ish, Pm, Tc): You’re going to have a really bad day, probably your last day, with a few exceptions. Uranium, Thorium, and a few others of these elements are probably not radioactive enough to kill you outright, though they might well give you stomach (or some other organ) cancer, which might get you later on. But many of these elements are radioactive enough to cause some serious radiation sickness and possibly death. Do not eat.
The superradioactive elements (104 - 118). These explode in your facehole, making a much larger facehole. Briefly. Then you die.

Dave Consiglio我当科学老师和教授已经快20年了。
卤素(F, Cl, Br, I):会灼伤你的肺(因为有气体),或者你的嘴和消化系统(尤其是Br,还有I),会很恐怖。不要这样做。

放射性元素(84—104, Pm, Tc):你将会有非常糟糕的一天,可能是你的最后一天,除了一些例外。

超放射性元素(104 - 118)。这些在你脸洞上发生的爆炸,会使你的脸动变得更大。简单说,你死了。
评论暂时关闭,登录 后进行查看