【上】全世界重新审视废品回收产业(正文)
2019-10-21 北海西铜 26579
原文地址
原文地址:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8HROn34sDRk&t=53s
正文翻译
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:北海西铜 转载请注明出处

We''''re traveling around the world to find out how China is reshaping... basically everything. This week, recycling.

我们环游世界,去了解中国正在以何种方式重塑……可以说是一切。本周的主题:废品回收业。



I''''m standing on a mountain of this - plastic waste from all over the world. Plastic packaging for frozen vegetables from Germany. Nesquik from Spain. Sunflower seeds made in USA. Cat food from the UK. This stuff has found its way here, to an illegal dumping site in Malaysia. And it''s all Because China.
If you live in a rich country, the stuff you recycle doesn''t usually get processed at home. Instead, it''s sent abroad. For decades, that meant China.

记者:我正站在一座小山一样的塑料垃圾堆上——德国的冷冻蔬菜塑料包装、西班牙的雀巢巧克力酱、美国生产的葵花籽、英国的猫粮……这些东西就这么一路来到马来西亚的一个非法垃圾倾倒点。而这背后的原因,是中国。
如果你生活在一个富裕国家,那么你的回收品通常不是在自己国内处理的。相反,它们被送去了国外。而过去几十年里,这就意味着被送去中国。



Yifei Li studies China''''s environmental policies. He says China bought the world''s plastic because it was a good investment.
"When China rose as the world''''s factory, a lot of the products came to be made in China and then shipped to different parts of the world. But when these ships come back to China, many of the containers were actually empty."

李一飞(音)的工作是研究中国的环境政策。他说,在过去,中国收购整个世界的塑料,是因为这曾是一项不错的投资。
李一飞介绍说:“当中国作为世界工厂崛起的时候,很多产品都是在中国制造,然后运往世界各地的。但当这些船只返回中国时,运回的只是大量空集装箱。”



Chinese entrepreneurs filled that empty space with plastic scrap. Manufacturers needed plastic for all the "made in China" stuff that fueled the country''s growth. They could make it from scratch, but it was cheaper to make pellets using waste from the US, Europe, and Japan. In exchange, rich countries got Chinese products even cheaper.

中国企业家们想到了用塑料等废品装满这些集装箱。推动中国经济增长的“中国制造”产品需要大量塑料。他们自己当然也生产塑料,但用来自美国、欧洲、日本的废品制造的“塑料再生颗粒”却更廉价。而反过来,富裕国家进口的中国产品又更便宜了。



The spread of cancer villages was just one factor that led China to question its role in the global recycling trade. China also wanted to start recycling all of the plastic waste it was producing at home. And there was a feeling that the country had become a "dumping ground" for the world''s waste.

癌症村的蔓延只是导致中国思考其在全球回收贸易链中作用的其中一个因素。中国还希望开始回收所有本国生产的塑料废品;而有一种感觉是,这个国家已经变成了世界的“垃圾倾倒场”。

Then, in 2017 China upended the industry - it decided to ban almost all plastic waste from entering the country.

于是,在2017年,中国做出了颠覆整个行业的决定——禁止几乎所有塑料废品进入中国。



Adam Minter is a journalist who has spent years reporting on China and the global trash industry. He says the ban forced Chinese recyclers to relocate.
"The ban has been incredibly disruptive. People needed to find new places where they could process this material, and there was a scramble. And one of the places they went to, of course, is Southeast Asia."

亚当·明特(Adam Minter)是一名记者,多年来一直在报道中国和全球垃圾产业。他说,这项禁令迫使中国的废品回收商不得不向外迁移。
亚当·明特:“禁令引起的混乱令人难以置信。人们需要找到新的可以处理这些废品的地方,而这个过程相当艰难。当然了,他们最后去的地方之一,就是东南亚。”



2018年泰国、越南、马来西亚接收的洋垃圾(单位:吨)

One year later, it was ending up in Vietnam, Thailand, and, most of all, Malaysia. Malaysia was ideal for Chinese recyclers. It''s close to China, the two countries already trade a lot, and there are large communities of Mandarin-speaking, ethnic Chinese communities here. So hundreds of Chinese operatores began setting up shop, often illegally, to recycle plastic and sell it back home, where there was still huge demand for pellets.

一年后,国际废品找到了越南、泰国,以及最主要的落脚点——马来西亚。马来西亚是中国回收业者的理想选择。它离中国很近,两国已经存在大量贸易往来,而这里还有很多讲普通话的华人社区。于是,成百上千的中国回收商开始在这里搭建工场(很多是非法的)回收塑料,再将成品卖回国内——因为中国对塑料再生颗粒仍然有巨大的需求。

Instead of the clean industrial waste Malaysia was used to recycling, these operators were dealing with stuff from households, which is dirty, hard to sort, and often not recyclable at all. The government started to crack down. This mountain used to be much taller, before officials shut down several illegal operators in the area.
But we drove to another site three hours away and found that the operators were simply moving plastic waste to other parts of the country.

和过去马来西亚处理的工业废料不同,这些回收商处理的是来自家庭的垃圾,它们很脏,很难分类,而且通常根本不可回收。这引来了马来西亚政府的严厉打击。这座垃圾山以前还要高很多,后来政府关闭了这一地区的几家非法回收厂。但当我们开车前往三个小时路程外的另一个地点,才发现回收商们只是把塑料垃圾转运到了那里。



Pua Lay Peng is a resident of Jenjarom, a town about 35 miles outside Kuala Lumpur. She''s part of a local activist group fighting to stop the illegal dumping and burning of plastic waste in their community.

普阿·雷鹏(Pua Lay Peng)是位于吉隆坡郊外约35英里的詹贾罗姆镇的居民。她是当地一个激进组织的成员,该组织致力于制止非法倾倒和焚烧塑料垃圾的行为。



China''''s ban has disrupted the global recycling system. It''''s also revealed the extent to which the system is broken.

中国的禁令打乱了全球废品回收体系。但这同时也揭露了这个体系原本就已经是何等千疮百孔。



美国新泽西州

Sunil Bagaria is president of one of the largest companies in the US that deals with plastic scrap.
"The whole industry was like, ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''Oh my God, what do we do now?'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Before China announced their ban, we were collecting from the suppliers and bringing that scrap to our warehouses and then shipping it to China."
With China off the table, Sunil''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s scrap had nowhere to go. For a while, he sold it to operators in India and Southeast Asia, but, one by one, those markets closed, too.

苏尼尔·巴加拉(Sunil Bagaria)是美国最大塑料废品处理公司其中一家的总裁。
苏尼尔:“整个行业都在想,‘天哪,我们现在该怎么办?’在中国颁布禁令之前,我们只是从供应商那里收集废料,运到我们的仓库,然后运往中国。”
而随着中国的退出,苏尼尔的废品无处可去。有那么一段时间,他还能把自己的废品卖给印度和东南亚等地经销商,但是,一个接一个地,这些市场也关闭了。



"Certainly it proved to be a blessing in disguise for the recycling industry in the USA. So, we are setting up to make pellets."
So he decided to recycle the plastic himself, hiring staff to do the manual labor of sorting, and buying new equipment - from China, of course. His final product is the same plastic pellets that China used to produce. And these have brought China back into the picture.

苏尼尔说:“这对美国的废品回收业来说,无疑倒是因祸得福了。你看,我们就开始生产这些塑料颗粒了。”
苏尼尔下定决心自己做塑料回收,雇佣员工进行人工分类,并购买了新设备——当然是从中国。他的最终产品就是中国过去生产的那种塑料再生颗粒。而这,又让中国重新回到了人们的视野中。



When we visited Sunil, a delegation of Chinese recyclers was touring his facility and inspecting his output.
One of these visitors was Zhang Haiqing, general manager of a recycling technology company based in Southeast China.
"What do you hope to get out of this visit to the United States?" "To find suitable partners, and maybe next year or next two years, we have great opportunity to develop all of American market."

就在我们采访苏尼尔的时候,一个中国回收业代表团正在参观他的工厂并检查他的产品。其中一位参观者,中国东南部一家回收技术公司的总经理张海清(音)也接受了我们的采访。
记者:“你希望这次美国之行有什么收获?”
张海清:“希望能找到合适的合作伙伴,也许就在一两年之内,我们有很大的机会开发整个美国市场。”



For decades, China was a black hole for the world''s plastic. Rich countries sold their scrap and didn''t think about what happened to it. Now in countries like the US, recyclable plastic is piling up and heading to landfills. Sunil''s operation is the exception. With that black hole closed for good, the world will have to actually think about what happens to all the plastic it consumes, whether it ends up in China, Malaysia, or the United States.

几十年来,中国一直是世界塑料废品的“黑洞”。发达国家卖掉他们的废品后,就再也不去想这些废品最后会怎么样。如今,在美国等国家,等待被运往垃圾填埋场的可回收塑料正堆积如山。苏尼尔的办法仅仅只能算是个例。随着中国将“黑洞”永远关闭,整个世界不得不重新思考,它消耗的所有这些塑料制品最终会导致什么后果——不论它们最后是去了中国,马来西亚,还是美国。
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原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:北海西铜 转载请注明出处

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