据专家说法,以下是我们从这次大流行中学到的
2021-01-07 orange 20058
正文翻译

Climate, health and social justice experts tell us how we can come out of the coronavirus crisis better than before.

气候、健康和社会正义专家告诉我们,我们如何才能比以往更好地走出冠状病毒危机。

The coronavirus is more than a vector of disease: It is a window onto our greatest failings. The pandemic has exposed a lot of weak points in society, from the lack of health care access and worker protection in the U.S., to the ways cities have been designed for cars instead of pedestrians, to the fragility of food supply chains. COVID-19 has disproportionately affected low-income workers and communities of color, revealing how historical biases have created and reinforced inequalities in society. It has shown that our abuse of the natural world is untenable.

冠状病毒不仅仅是疾病的载体:它是揭示我们最大缺点的窗口。大流行暴露了社会上的许多弱点,从美国缺乏医疗保健和工人保护,到城市是为汽车而不是行人设计的,再到食品供应链的脆弱性。COVID-19对低收入工人和有色人种社区的影响格外严重,这表明历史偏见是如何在社会中造成和加强不平等的。它表明我们滥用自然世界是站不住脚的。

The pandemic has been a series of escalating lessons in how not to prepare and how not to respond. We asked 10 experts in health, food, social justice and environment: After all these failures, have we learned anything?

在如何不做好准备和如何不作出反应方面,大流行是一系列不断升级的教训。我们询问了健康、食品、社会正义和环境方面的10位专家:在所有这些失败之后,我们学到了什么?

“In the most painful way, pandemics show us what we need to fix in our world.”

“流行病以最痛苦的方式向我们展示了我们的世界需要解决的问题。”

Aaron Bernstein, interim director, Center for Climate, Health and the Global Environment at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and pediatric hospitalist at Boston Children’s Hospital

艾伦·伯恩斯坦,哈佛大学陈曾熙公共卫生学院气候、健康和全球环境中心临时主任,波士顿儿童医院儿科医院医生


“Our response to this crisis must be transformative.”

“我们应对这场危机的方式必须是变革的。”

Priya Mulgaonkar, resiliency planner for the New York City Environmental Justice Alliance

纽约环境正义联盟的弹性规划师马尔冈卡说

The pandemic has laid bare the pervasive and violent inequality facing people of color, compounding existing inequities faced by communities burdened with environmental racism, police brutality, and economic inequality.

这一流行病暴露了有色人种普遍面临的暴力不平等,加剧了背负着环境种族主义、警察暴行和经济不平等负担的社区面临的现有不平等。



Snow is seen on the San Gabriel Mountains beyond downtown Los Angeles under a clear sky after weeks of storms and reduced traffic due to the COVID-19 stay-at-home order, on April 14, 2020.

2020年4月14日,在经历了数周的暴风雪和因冠状病毒病居家禁令导致交通减少后,洛杉矶市中心以外的圣加布里埃尔山脉上,天空晴朗,下起了雪。

“The biggest point to draw from this past year is that solidarity actually matters.”

“从过去一年的经历中可以得出的最重要的一点是,团结确实很重要。”

Bill McKibben, author, educator, environmentalist and founder of the nonprofit 350.org

比尔·麦基本,作家、教育家、环保主义者,非盈利组织350.org的创始人

The pandemic should remind us that physical reality is real ― I’ve been trying to make this point about carbon for years, that chemistry and physics don’t negotiate. The microbe makes the same point for biology. And as a corollary, fast action in the face of a crisis helps: South Korea had its first case the same day as the U.S. ― and one of those countries then acted swiftly to bend the curve and one didn’t. The same, obviously, goes for global warming.

这场大流行应该提醒我们,物质现实是真实的——多年来,我一直试图在碳问题上阐明这一点,化学和物理是不会妥协的。微生物在生物学上也证明了这一点。必然的结果是,在危机面前迅速采取行动会有所帮助:韩国和美国同一天就出现了首例病例——然后其中一个国家迅速采取行动扭转了形势,而另一个没有。显然,全球变暖也是如此。


After this year, when it’s become clear that the scariest sentences are more like “we’ve run out of ventilators” or “the hillside behind your house is on fire,” those words seem particularly contemptible and archaic.

今年以后,当人们发现最可怕的句子更像是“我们用完了呼吸机”或“你家房子后面的山坡着火了”时,这些词就显得特别的可恨和古老。

“Real climate solutions must be built around justice.”

“真正的气候解决方案必须围绕正义建立。”

Robert Bullard, distinguished professor of urban planning and environmental policy at Texas Southern University and author of several books

罗伯特·布拉德,德克萨斯南方大学城市规划与环境政策特聘教授,著有多本著作

COVID-19 acted like a “heat-seeking” missile that targeted the most vulnerable in our society resulting in disproportionate infections, hospitalizations and deaths of people of color.

冠状病毒疾病就像一枚“热追踪”导弹,以我们社会中最脆弱的群体为目标,导致有色人种感染、住院和死亡人数不成比例。

The pandemic revealed severe flaws in our political, economic and health system that tolerated elevated risks to front-line essential workers and extremely high financial losses to small businesses owned by people of color. The pandemic widened the racial economic gap between “haves” and “have-nots.” Government pandemic stimulus and relief dollars followed a predictable pattern of “money following money, money following power, and money following whites.”

这场大流行暴露了我们的政治、经济和卫生系统的严重缺陷,这些缺陷容忍了一线重要工人面临的较高风险,也容忍了有色人种拥有的小企业遭受的极高财务损失。这一流行病扩大了"富人"和"穷人"之间的种族经济差距。政府的大规模刺激和救济资金遵循了一种可预测的模式:“钱追钱,钱追权力,钱追白人。”

This year, a giant spotlight was shone on the connection between racial redlining practiced a century ago, pollution “hot-spots,” urban heat island disparities and high COVID-19 dangers.

今年,人们聚焦于一个世纪前实行的种族红线、污染“热点”、城市热岛差异和冠状病毒疾病高危险之间的联系。


Real climate solutions must be built around justice — climate justice, environmental justice, economic justice, health justice and racial justice.

真正的气候解决方案必须建立在正义之上——气候正义、环境正义、经济正义、健康正义和种族正义。


“The COVID-19 pandemic ... provides us with an opportunity to reimagine and recreate public health.”

“冠状病毒疾病大流行……为我们提供了一个重新想象和重建公共卫生的机会。”

Lauren R. Powell, president and CEO of The Equitist, and vice president and head of health care at Time’s Up Foundation

任·鲍威尔,器械公司总裁兼首席执行官,Time’s Up基金会副总裁兼卫生保健主管

This moment is truly unlike any other. It’s made plain the deep social imbalances ― like poverty, racism, sexism, classism to name a few ― that are a new revelation for some, but have been common knowledge for many. As a trained public health professional and former state health official, I can’t help but think about the lessons that I hope health care and public health take and learn from the moment we’re in.

这一刻是独一无二的。它揭示了深层次的社会失衡——比如贫困、种族歧视、性别歧视、阶级歧视等等——这对一些人来说是一个新发现,但对很多人来说却是常识。作为一名训练有素的公共卫生专业人员和前国家卫生官员,我不禁想起我希望卫生保健和公共卫生部门从我们所处的时刻吸取的教训。


We need more diverse messages and messengers: There are hundreds of exceptionally qualified Black & Brown, Native, LGBTQ+, multilingual, multicultural public health and health care leaders who are better versed at communicating and connecting with the diverse communities they come from. Public health and health care have to elevate diverse leaders to positions of authority and visibility and learn how to speak the language not of science, but of the people ― by connecting with community leaders, faith leaders, and everyday Americans long before the point of an emergency.

我们需要更多多样化的信息和信使:有数百名非常合格的黑人和棕色人种、本地人、LGBTQ+、多语言、多元文化的公共卫生和卫生保健领袖,他们更擅长与来自不同社区的人沟通和联系。公共卫生和卫生保健必须将不同的领导人提升到具有权威和知名度的位置,并通过在紧急情况发生之前很久就与社区领袖、宗教领袖和普通美国人联系,学习如何使用人民的语言,而不是科学的语言。


“We must never forget that essential workers are essential all of the time.”

“我们永远不能忘记,重要的工人在任何时候都是重要的。”

Ai-jen Poo, co-founder and executive director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance

蒲爱仁是全国家庭佣工联盟的联合创始人兼执行董事。


We can begin with supporting our care workforce ― if we invest in making home care and child care jobs good jobs ― raising wages, offering benefits and real opportunity, we not only improve life for the care workforce, we help enable the rest of America to get back to work, knowing that our loved ones are safe and in good hands. The president-elect has already named this as a priority for economic recovery, as part of his 21st Century Caregiving Plan. Now we must make it a reality.

我们可以开始支持保健劳动力——如果我们投资在家庭护理和儿童保健工作好工作——提高工资、提供福利和真正的机会,我们不仅改善关心员工的生活,帮助我们让其他美国人回去工作,知道我们所爱的人是安全的,在可靠的人手中。当选总统奥巴马已经把这列为经济复苏的重点,作为他21世纪照顾计划的一部分。现在我们必须使之成为现实。

“This horrific situation has been the impetus for an incredible new unity.”

“这种可怕的局势推动了令人难以置信的新团结。”


The pandemic wreaked devastation on the restaurant industry, and in particular on restaurant workers, who were already America’s lowest-wage workers. Prior to the pandemic, tipped restaurant workers received a subminimum wage of as little as $2.13 an hour at the federal level ... with the pandemic, the subminimum wage became a matter of life and death.

大流行对餐饮业造成了毁灭性的打击,尤其是对餐馆工人,他们已经是美国工资最低的工人了。在大流行之前,有小费的餐馆员工的最低工资只有2.13美元每小时。随着大流行病的发生,最低工资成为生死攸关的问题。

But this horrific situation has been the impetus for an incredible new unity in the industry for change. During the pandemic, we’ve seen hundreds of independent restaurant owners change their own wage structures to pay a full minimum wage with tips on top. Even the industry’s top trade magazines have had headlines declaring that the industry is rethinking the subminimum wage for tipped workers. Now we just need legislators to follow workers and employers who’ve already come to agree on this issue.

但这一可怕的情况已经成为推动行业内难以置信的新团结变革的动力。在疫情期间,我们看到数百家独立餐厅老板改变了他们自己的工资结构,支付全额最低工资,外加小费。就连业内顶尖的行业杂志都在头版头条宣称,行业正在重新考虑给小费工人的最低工资。现在我们只需要立法者跟随已经在这个问题上达成一致的工人和雇主。


People line up in their cars to receive food assistance at the Share Your Christmas food distribution event on Dec. 9, 2020, in Groveland, Florida. Central Florida food banks struggled to serve those facing food insecurity during the holiday season amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

2020年12月9日,在佛罗里达州的格罗夫兰,人们在自己的车里排队接受食品援助,分享你的圣诞食品分发活动。在2019冠状病毒病大流行期间,佛罗里达州中部的食品银行艰难地为那些面临食品安全问题的人们提供服务。

“The pandemic has taught punishing ... lessons about the hazards of food systems designed for profit, not public health.”

“这场瘟疫教会了我们惩罚…关于食品系统的危害的教训,这些食品系统是为利润而非公众健康而设计的。”

Marion Nestle, professor of nutrition, food studies, and public health, emerita, New York University, and author of books about food politics

Marion Nestle,营养学、食品研究和公共卫生教授,纽约大学荣誉退休教授,食品政治书籍的作者

The pandemic has taught punishing — and previously largely unrecognized ― lessons about the hazards of food systems designed for profit, not public health.

这次大流行给我们上了惩罚性的一课——在此之前,人们基本上没有意识到——食品系统的危害是为利润而非公共卫生而设计的。

There was the revelation that we have two distinctly separate food supplies, one for retail — supermarkets, groceries, and convenience stores — and the other for institutional food service in restaurants, schools, and the like. When these institutions closed, foods designated for them had no place to go and had to be destroyed. At the same time, the millions of people thrown out of work had no means of buying food. Many lined up for hours outside overstretched private food banks.

人们发现,我们有两种截然不同的食品供应,一种是零售食品——超市、杂货店和便利店,另一种是餐馆、学校等机构食品服务。当这些机构关闭后,为它们指定的食物无处可去,只能被销毁。与此同时,数百万失去工作的人没有办法购买食物。许多人在人满为患的私人食品银行外排队数小时。

It became achingly clear how vulnerable millions of Americans are to food insecurity, and how little it takes to put families at risk of hunger.

我们已经清楚地看到,数百万美国人是多么容易受到食品不安全的影响,而让家庭面临饥饿的风险又多么容易。

We also quickly saw how severely COVID-19 affected people with conditions related to poor diet: obesity, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, and heart disease, and how important healthful diets are for preventing these problems.

我们还很快看到了冠状病毒疾病对与不良饮食相关的疾病(肥胖、高血压、2型糖尿病和心脏病)患者的影响有多么严重,以及健康饮食对预防这些问题有多么重要。

Low-wage workers in meat packing plants, grocery stores, and farms were suddenly deemed essential, despite their lack of health care benefits and high risk of contagion.

肉类包装厂、杂货店和农场的低工资工人突然被认为是必需的,尽管他们缺乏医疗保健福利,而且有很高的传染风险。


“What’s needed is for nations to take aggressive action that addresses the lixed needs of people and nature.”

“各国需要采取积极行动,解决人与自然的相关需求。”



The pandemic killed the momentum, understandably. But it’s becoming clear that COVID-19 is not a separate problem, but an interconnected one. The same drivers of the novel coronavirus, and other emerging infectious diseases, are also the drivers of biodiversity loss. These include the wildlife trade that allowed COVID-19 to jump to humans, as well as land-use change and climate change that bring people and wild animals into close contact.

这一流行病扼杀了这种势头,这是可以理解的。但越来越明显的是,冠状病毒疾病不是一个单独的问题,而是一个相互关联的问题。新型冠状病毒和其他新发传染病的驱动因素也是生物多样性丧失的驱动因素。这包括导致冠状病毒疾病传播给人类的野生动物贸易,以及导致人和野生动物密切接触的土地使用变化和气候变化。



“One thing this pandemic has taught us is how much we were taking for granted.”

“这次大流行告诉我们的一件事是,我们有多么认为一些寻常的事是理所当然的。”

Laurie Santos, professor of psychology at Yale University

耶鲁大学心理学教授劳里·桑托斯说


评论翻译
收藏译文
暂不支持评论