“四年的宣传”:专家说,特朗普的社交媒体禁令来得太迟了
2021-01-12 大宝贝 19417
正文翻译

'Four years of propaganda': Trump social media bans come too late, experts say

“四年的宣传”:专家说,特朗普的社交媒体禁令来得太迟了

In the 24 hours since the US Capitol in Washington was seized by a Trump-supporting mob disputing the results of the 2020 election, American social media companies have barred the president from their platforms for spreading falsehoods and inciting the crowd.

在支持特朗普的暴徒对2020年大选结果提出质疑后的24小时内,美国社交媒体公司就禁止了特朗普总统,在其平台上传播谎言和煽动群众。

Facebook, Snapchat and Twitch suspended Donald Trump indefinitely. Twitter locked his account temporarily. Multiple platforms removed his messages.

脸书、色拉布和推趣无限期封停唐纳德·特朗普,推特则暂时封锁了他的账户,也有好几个平台删除了他的信息。

Those actions, coming just days before the end of Trump’s presidency, are too little, too late, according to misinformation experts and civil rights experts who have long warned about the rise of misinformation and violent rightwing rhetoric on social media sites and Trump’s role in fueling it.

这些是在特朗普总统任期结束的前几天,所采取的行动,力度太小,为时过晚,这些是虚假消息专家和民权专家的看法。长期以来,他们一直在警告社交媒体网站上虚假信息和暴力右翼言论的增多,以及特朗普在助长这些言论方面发挥的作用。

“This was exactly what we expected,” said Brian Friedberg, a senior researcher at the Harvard Shorenstein Center’s Technology and Social Change Project who studies the rise of movements like QAnon. “It is very consistent with how the coalescing of different factions responsible for what happened yesterday have been operating online, and how platforms’ previous attempts to deal with them have fallen short.”

“这正是我们所期待的,”布莱恩·弗里德伯格说,他是哈佛大学肖伦斯坦中心技术和社会变革项目的高级研究员,专门研究QAnon等运动的兴起,“这与对昨天发生的事情负责的不同派系在网上联合运作的方式非常一致,而且早先平台尝试处理他们的方式也有所欠缺”(注:QAnon:匿名者Q是一种极右翼阴谋论,其认为美国政府内部存在一个反对美国总统唐纳德·特朗普和其支持者的深层政府。)




YouTube removed “tens of thousands of QAnon-videos and terminated hundreds of channels” around the time of Facebook’s measures. It also upxed its policy to target more conspiracy theory videos that promote real-world violence, but it still stopped short of banning QAnon content outright. A spokesman from YouTube noted the company had taken a number of other actions to address QAnon content, including adding information panels sharing facts about QAnon on videos as early as 2018.

在脸书采取措施前后,油管删除了“数万个QAnon视频,并关停了数百个频道”。它还更新了政策,把目标对准更多宣扬现实世界暴力的阴谋论视频,但它仍然没有完全禁止QAnon的内容。油管的一名发言人指出,该公司已经采取了一些其他措施来解决QAnon的内容,包括最早在2018年增加的信息面板,在视频中分享有关QAnon的事实。


Grygiel cited the Smith-Mundt Act of 1948, which regulates the distribution of government propaganda, as an example of one law that limits the government’s communication. But such regulation does not exist for the president’s Twitter account, Grygiel said. Instead we have relied on the assumption the president would not use his social media account to incite an insurrection.

格里吉尔引用了1948年的史密斯蒙特法案,作为限制政府传播的一个例子,该法案规定了政府宣传的分布。但格里格尔说,总统的推特账户不存在这样的规定,相反,我们认为总统不会使用他的社交媒体账户来煽动一场叛乱。

“What happened this week is the product of four years of systematic propaganda from the presidency,” Grygiel said.

格里吉尔说:“本周发生的事情是四年来总统系统宣传的结果。”

In the absence of any meaningful regulation, tech companies have had little incentive to regulate their massively profitable platforms, curb the spread of falsehoods that produce engagement and moderate the president.

在缺乏任何有意义的监管情况下,科技公司几乎没有什么动机,来监管其利润丰厚的平台,遏制能够产生参与度的谎言传播以及调控总统。

That’s why experts say things have to change. In 2020, Republicans and Democrats amplified calls to regulate big tech. The events this week underscore that the reckoning over big tech must include measures aimed at addressing the risks posed by leaders lying and promoting violence on their platforms, some argue.

这就是为什么专家说事情必须做出改变。2020年,共和党人和民主党人加大了监管大型科技公司的呼声,一些人认为,本周的事件突显出,对大型科技公司的惩处必须包括旨在应对领导人在其平台上撒谎和宣传暴力所带来的风险的措施。


“Social media platforms must be held accountable for their complicity in the destruction of our democracy,” he added, arguing that in absence of meaningful enforcement from social media, Congress must pass better legislation to address hate speech on these platforms.

“社交媒体平台必须对它们参与破坏我们的民主负责,”他补充道,他认为,在社交媒体缺乏有意义的执法情况下,国会必须通过更好的立法,解决这些平台上的仇恨言论。

Facebook and Twitter did not respond to requests for comment.

脸书和推特并未回应置评请求。

Grygiel said it was time to move away from the idea that a president should be tweeting at all. Adam Mosseri, head of Facebook’s subsidiary Instagram, said on Twitter on Thursday evening that Facebook has long said it believes “regulation around harmful content would be a good thing”. He acknowledged that Facebook “cannot tackle harmful content without considering those in power as a potential source”.

格里吉尔表示,现在是时候放弃总统应该发推特的想法了,脸书的子公司Instagram的主管亚当·莫塞里,周四晚间在推特上表示,长期以来,脸书一直认为,“对有害内容进行监管将是一件好事”。他承认,脸书“不能在不把当权者视为潜在来源的情况下,处理有害内容”。

Grygiel said: “We need non-partisan work here. We need legislation that ensures no future president can ever propagandize the American people in this way again.”

格里吉尔说:“我们需要无党派的工作。我们需要立法来确保未来的总统不会再以这种方式宣传美国人民。”

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