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中国政府进一步屏蔽谷歌Gmail邮件服务译文来源:龙腾网 HTTP://WWW.LTAAA.COM

China Adds New Barrier To Gmail 

The Chinese government appears to have blocked the ability of people in China to gain access to Google’s email service through third-party email services like Apple Mail or Microsoft Outlook, which many Chinese and foreigners had been relying on to use their Gmail accounts after an earlier blocking effort by officials, according to Internet analysts and users in China.
The blocking began on Friday and has ignited anger and frustration among many Internet users in China. Data from Google shows traffic to Gmail dropping to zero from Chinese servers.
But it is not just a matter of convenience for Chinese Internet users. Some foreign companies use Gmail as their corporate email service, for example, and so companies will have to ensure that employees have V.P.N., or virtual private network, software to get into Gmail.
That software allows users to bypass the Chinese Internet censorship controls commonly known as the Great Firewall, although the authorities also try to inhibit that software.
Google is not the only company to be censored inside China. Facebook, the world’s largest social network, is essentially blocked there. Its Instagram photo-sharing service was briefly blocked this fall when pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong began using it to share photos with mainland Chinese users.
When LinkedIn began offering a Chinese-language version of its business social network this year, it had to agree to censor content seen by Chinese users.
This time, Gmail appeared to have been singled out. Representatives for Yahoo and Microsoft said on Monday that the companies had heard no complaints from users in China about its services being blocked.译文来源:龙腾网 HTTP://WWW.LTAAA.COM
United States tech companies want badly to have a larger presence in China, but have mostly been foiled by local competition and government controls.
“As far as we can tell, the only U.S. Internet company that has really ‘succeeded’ in China is Yahoo, because Jerry Yang and Terry Semel had the vision and the luck to invest in Alibaba a hundred years ago,” wrote Mark Mahaney, an Internet analyst at RBC Capital Markets, in a recent note to clients. “No other Internet company has managed to gain material traction in China, with government opposition one key factor.”
China’s position is that the world’s second-largest economy is open to United States tech companies, but only on the ruling party’s terms. Those terms are essentially to do business through local partnerships, to host data on Chinese soil — where the government has access to it — and to remove anything the party deems offensive. Investing in these controls is the de facto tax on entering China.
Google has prominently refused those demands, which has for years made it a target of the Chinese government. Google does have limited business in the country, like ad sales, and it recently opened the Google Play store to Chinese developers, allowing them to build apps for Android devices outside of China. But the company’s consumer-facing services, like Gmail, have largely been blocked since 2010.
Some official publications have cited the company as one component of a Western conspiracy to undermine China. For example, Chinese officials had insisted Google censor its search results, angering some top executives at Google, who refused to comply.
So while the latest Gmail-blocking tactics are new, the idea is the same: to block Google, wherever it is, in hopes of causing users enough frustration that they migrate to services like Baidu, a Chinese company that has a popular search engine here, that adhere to party rules.
People in China began noticing the new blocking of Gmail over the weekend, as their third-party mail applications failed to download emails from Gmail accounts if the users
did not have V.P.N. software switched on.
For months, using such mail programs has been the most common way for people in China to keep using Gmail. The Chinese government blocked access to Gmail’s website and other Google websites around the 25th anniversary of the June 4, 1989, protests and fatal government response in Tiananmen Square.
But this new move frustrated Chinese and foreign Internet users in the country.
“It’s against the spirit of the Internet,” said Yuan Shengang, chief executive of NetentSec, a Beijing-based cybersecurity company, in a telephone interview.
A Chinese technology news website, 36Kr, said in an article that “such complete access failure to Gmail has no precedent.”
Luo Zhiqiu, a lecturer in English at Nanjing University, wrote on his microblog on Sunday that the interference came at “a critical moment for many students who are currently applying for overseas universities.”
“Their contact emails are Gmails,” he wrote. “Such blockage brings great inconvenience. Many years later, when they will consider whether they should go back to China, this experience might lead them to choose, without hesitation, not to return.”
A Foreign Ministry spokeswoman, Hua Chunying, was asked at a regularly scheduled news conference in Beijing about the blocking. She said she knew nothing about it.
“China has consistently had a welcoming and supportive attitude towards foreign investors doing legitimate business here,” she said. “We will, as always, provide an open, transparent and good environment for foreign companies in China.”
Last Thursday, Red Flag, a Communist Party journal focused on political theory, published an article by two scholars from the National Defense University that called for greater regulation and monitoring of Internet use in China. The article said foreign organizations or companies, including the United States State Department, were constantly looking for ways to help Internet users in China get around China’s censorship controls. China needed to take “powerful measures” in response, wrote the authors, Zhao Zhouxian and Xu Zhidong.
In November, Lu Wei, the top Internet regulator in China, presided over a conference in Zhejiang Province that had some attendees from foreign technology companies. Mr. Lu stressed the need for nations to have “Internet sovereignty,” meaning countries should be able to create and control their own online space.
Chinese authorities blocked the websites of The New York Times and Bloomberg News after both news organizations published separate stories in 2012 on the family wealth of party leaders. Those websites remain blocked and cannot be seen without V.P.N. Software.
Edward Wong and Kiki Zhao reported from Beijing and Conor Dougherty from San Francisco. Vindu Goel contributed reporting from San Francisco. Shanshan Wang contributed research from Beijing.


LinkedIn 在今年推出中文版本社交网络时,也不得不同意先接受审查才能允许中国用户访问。

“在中国的美国网络公司,我们可以这么说:真正算得上“成功”的也只有雅虎了,因为创始人杨致远和CEOTerry Semel 在很久之前便极为远见的有幸投资了阿里巴巴。”加拿大皇家银行的网络分析师Mark Mahaney写道,“仅仅因为政府反对一个因素,在中国的其它的网络公司都没能受到一点实质支持。

尽管这是前所未有的谷歌屏蔽策略,但其本质是相同的:不管它在哪儿,屏蔽它,这样用户绝望之后就会转投其它搜索,比如 百度这种遵纪守法的的在中国混的风生水起的搜索引擎。


上周四,红旗党报刊登了一篇有国防大学两位学者( Zhao Zhouxian and Xu Zhidong)撰述的有关政治理论的文章《加强中国网络使用的约束和监督》,写道:包括美国有关部门的外国机构和公司,一直试图帮助中国网民摆脱中国网络审查控制。中国需要采取强有力措施进行回应。

Edward Wong, Kiki Zhao北京报道,Conor Dougherty旧金山报道,Vindu Goel旧金山协助报道,Shanshan Wang北京协助调查


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