中国政府进一步屏蔽谷歌Gmail邮件服务

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中国政府进一步屏蔽谷歌Gmail邮件服务译文来源:龙腾网 HTTP://WWW.LTAAA.COM

China Adds New Barrier To Gmail 



The Chinese government appears to have blocked the ability of people in China to gain access to Google’s email service through third-party email services like Apple Mail or Microsoft Outlook, which many Chinese and foreigners had been relying on to use their Gmail accounts after an earlier blocking effort by officials, according to Internet analysts and users in China.
The blocking began on Friday and has ignited anger and frustration among many Internet users in China. Data from Google shows traffic to Gmail dropping to zero from Chinese servers.
But it is not just a matter of convenience for Chinese Internet users. Some foreign companies use Gmail as their corporate email service, for example, and so companies will have to ensure that employees have V.P.N., or virtual private network, software to get into Gmail.
That software allows users to bypass the Chinese Internet censorship controls commonly known as the Great Firewall, although the authorities also try to inhibit that software.
Google is not the only company to be censored inside China. Facebook, the world’s largest social network, is essentially blocked there. Its Instagram photo-sharing service was briefly blocked this fall when pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong began using it to share photos with mainland Chinese users.
When LinkedIn began offering a Chinese-language version of its business social network this year, it had to agree to censor content seen by Chinese users.
This time, Gmail appeared to have been singled out. Representatives for Yahoo and Microsoft said on Monday that the companies had heard no complaints from users in China about its services being blocked.译文来源:龙腾网 HTTP://WWW.LTAAA.COM
United States tech companies want badly to have a larger presence in China, but have mostly been foiled by local competition and government controls.
“As far as we can tell, the only U.S. Internet company that has really ‘succeeded’ in China is Yahoo, because Jerry Yang and Terry Semel had the vision and the luck to invest in Alibaba a hundred years ago,” wrote Mark Mahaney, an Internet analyst at RBC Capital Markets, in a recent note to clients. “No other Internet company has managed to gain material traction in China, with government opposition one key factor.”
China’s position is that the world’s second-largest economy is open to United States tech companies, but only on the ruling party’s terms. Those terms are essentially to do business through local partnerships, to host data on Chinese soil — where the government has access to it — and to remove anything the party deems offensive. Investing in these controls is the de facto tax on entering China.
Google has prominently refused those demands, which has for years made it a target of the Chinese government. Google does have limited business in the country, like ad sales, and it recently opened the Google Play store to Chinese developers, allowing them to build apps for Android devices outside of China. But the company’s consumer-facing services, like Gmail, have largely been blocked since 2010.
Some official publications have cited the company as one component of a Western conspiracy to undermine China. For example, Chinese officials had insisted Google censor its search results, angering some top executives at Google, who refused to comply.
So while the latest Gmail-blocking tactics are new, the idea is the same: to block Google, wherever it is, in hopes of causing users enough frustration that they migrate to services like Baidu, a Chinese company that has a popular search engine here, that adhere to party rules.
People in China began noticing the new blocking of Gmail over the weekend, as their third-party mail applications failed to download emails from Gmail accounts if the users
did not have V.P.N. software switched on.
For months, using such mail programs has been the most common way for people in China to keep using Gmail. The Chinese government blocked access to Gmail’s website and other Google websites around the 25th anniversary of the June 4, 1989, protests and fatal government response in Tiananmen Square.
But this new move frustrated Chinese and foreign Internet users in the country.
“It’s against the spirit of the Internet,” said Yuan Shengang, chief executive of NetentSec, a Beijing-based cybersecurity company, in a telephone interview.
A Chinese technology news website, 36Kr, said in an article that “such complete access failure to Gmail has no precedent.”
Luo Zhiqiu, a lecturer in English at Nanjing University, wrote on his microblog on Sunday that the interference came at “a critical moment for many students who are currently applying for overseas universities.”
“Their contact emails are Gmails,” he wrote. “Such blockage brings great inconvenience. Many years later, when they will consider whether they should go back to China, this experience might lead them to choose, without hesitation, not to return.”
A Foreign Ministry spokeswoman, Hua Chunying, was asked at a regularly scheduled news conference in Beijing about the blocking. She said she knew nothing about it.
“China has consistently had a welcoming and supportive attitude towards foreign investors doing legitimate business here,” she said. “We will, as always, provide an open, transparent and good environment for foreign companies in China.”
Last Thursday, Red Flag, a Communist Party journal focused on political theory, published an article by two scholars from the National Defense University that called for greater regulation and monitoring of Internet use in China. The article said foreign organizations or companies, including the United States State Department, were constantly looking for ways to help Internet users in China get around China’s censorship controls. China needed to take “powerful measures” in response, wrote the authors, Zhao Zhouxian and Xu Zhidong.
In November, Lu Wei, the top Internet regulator in China, presided over a conference in Zhejiang Province that had some attendees from foreign technology companies. Mr. Lu stressed the need for nations to have “Internet sovereignty,” meaning countries should be able to create and control their own online space.
Chinese authorities blocked the websites of The New York Times and Bloomberg News after both news organizations published separate stories in 2012 on the family wealth of party leaders. Those websites remain blocked and cannot be seen without V.P.N. Software.
Edward Wong and Kiki Zhao reported from Beijing and Conor Dougherty from San Francisco. Vindu Goel contributed reporting from San Francisco. Shanshan Wang contributed research from Beijing.

中国政府似乎已经屏蔽了人们通过苹果邮箱或者微软Outlook等第三方邮件服务使用谷歌邮箱的通道,根据网络调查和中国用户的反映,在经过之前一次官方屏蔽之后,很多中国人和外国人不得不通过第三方邮件服务登陆他们的谷歌邮箱。
新的屏蔽在上周五开始,许多中国网民表示了失望和气愤,根据谷歌公布的数据显示,从中国服务前传输的数据流量也降到了零。
这不仅给中国网民带来了不便,比如,一些公司的邮箱使用的就是谷歌邮件服务,他们将不得不让员工使用虚拟专用网络VPN或者翻墙软件才能登陆谷歌邮箱。翻墙软件可以让用户跳过中国网络审查的控制-俗称网络长城-但是有关部门也在试图禁用这些翻墙软件。
在中国受到审查的并不只是谷歌一家,全球最大的社交网络Facebook在遭到了屏蔽,谷歌的照片分享服务应用Instagram也曾临时遭到屏蔽,因为香港一些支持民主的抗议者使用它和大陆中国用户分享照片。

LinkedIn 在今年推出中文版本社交网络时,也不得不同意先接受审查才能允许中国用户访问。
然而此次谷歌貌似受到中国政府的特别照顾了,根据雅虎和微软周一的报道,他们的还没接到服务被屏蔽的投诉。尽管美国科技公司非常希望在中国扩大市场,但是他们大多会受到中国竞争者和政府的阻挠。

“在中国的美国网络公司,我们可以这么说:真正算得上“成功”的也只有雅虎了,因为创始人杨致远和CEOTerry Semel 在很久之前便极为远见的有幸投资了阿里巴巴。”加拿大皇家银行的网络分析师Mark Mahaney写道,“仅仅因为政府反对一个因素,在中国的其它的网络公司都没能受到一点实质支持。
中国的立场就是,我们这个世界第二大经济体(译者:现在貌似是第一)对美国的科技公司是开放的,但是需要满足我方的条件,在展开经营活动前要满足一些要求,比如寻求本地合作经营,服务器数据保存在本土-这样政府就能访问-并且消除不利于我党的内容。附加的这些条件控制无疑是美国科技公司进入中国市场的隐税。好几年来,谷歌断然拒绝这些要求无疑让它成为中国政府的重点关照对象。谷歌在中国只有很少的业务比如广告销售,最近仍然对中国开发者开放了谷歌应用商店,允许他们为国外的安卓设备开发应用,但是面向用户的服务比如谷歌邮件从2010年起就被大规模屏蔽了。

一些政府官方报道把谷歌视为企图破坏中国的西方阴谋集团的一部分,比如中国当局坚持要求谷歌审查其搜索结果,但是被谷歌高层愤然拒绝。
尽管这是前所未有的谷歌屏蔽策略,但其本质是相同的:不管它在哪儿,屏蔽它,这样用户绝望之后就会转投其它搜索,比如 百度这种遵纪守法的的在中国混的风生水起的搜索引擎。
中国用户在周末突然发现,在没有开启VPN软件情况下使用第三方应用下载谷歌邮件都会失败,他们就意识到新一轮针对谷歌邮箱的屏蔽开始了。
几个月来,继续使用谷歌邮箱的中国用户通常都使用翻墙软件登陆谷歌邮箱。在1989年6月4日在抗议者和政府在天安门广场之间发生了激烈对抗的25周年之时,中国就屏蔽了谷歌邮箱网页和谷歌其它页面。但是这次新一轮的屏蔽让中国的用户和外国网民着实很伤。
“这违背了因特网精神”,北京网络安全公司网康科技首席执行官袁沈钢在电话采访中说道。
36氪-中国一家科技媒体网站有文章撰述:“这么彻底的网络连接屏蔽是前所未有的”

南京大学英语讲师罗Zhiqiu周日在他的微博里写道,网络被屏蔽时正值许多同学申请海外大学的关键时刻,他们通信的邮件使用的是谷歌邮件。这样的屏蔽带来了很大的不便。几年之后这些同学会思考为甚么要回到中国,这种经历无疑会让他们犹豫不决甚至不再回来。
外交部发言人华春莹在北京例行新闻发布会上被问及此事,她表示还不知情。她表示中国一贯支持和欢迎外国投资者在中国开展正当业务,会一如既往的向来华公司提供开放,透明和良好的经营环境。

上周四,红旗党报刊登了一篇有国防大学两位学者( Zhao Zhouxian and Xu Zhidong)撰述的有关政治理论的文章《加强中国网络使用的约束和监督》,写道:包括美国有关部门的外国机构和公司,一直试图帮助中国网民摆脱中国网络审查控制。中国需要采取强有力措施进行回应。
鲁炜,中国互联网监控部门最高负责人,在十一月浙江主持召开了互联网大会,一些外国科技公司代表出席参加。会上他强调了互联网主权对于一个国家的重要性,旨在表明任何国家都有权创造和控制他们自己的网络空间。
中国当局曾在2012年屏蔽了纽约时报和彭博资讯的网页,当时两家新闻媒体分别公布了党和国家领导人家庭财富。直到今天两家媒体的网页仍然没有开放,人们只能翻墙浏览。

Edward Wong, Kiki Zhao北京报道,Conor Dougherty旧金山报道,Vindu Goel旧金山协助报道,Shanshan Wang北京协助调查


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